which is as good a stabilizer as diphenylamine itself. Since both of these substances may be detected by simple tests upon an alcoholic extract of a sample of the powder, the fitness of the • powder for continued storage and use may be easily demon

strated. A strip of filter paper on which the alcoholic extract has been allowed to evaporate is colored blue by a drop of ammonium persulfate solution if unchanged diphenylamine is present. Likewise the extract, if it contains diphenylamine, is colored blue by the addition of a few drops of a saturated aqueous solution of ammonium persulfate. Since the alcoholic extract is often colored, the test is best carried out by comparing the colors of two equal portions of the extract, one with and one without the addition of ammonium persulfate. Diphenylnitrosamine gives no color with ammonium persulfate. One-tenth of a milligram of diphenylnitrosamine imparts an intense blue color to a few cubic centimeters of cold concentrated sulfuric acid. It gives no color with a cold 1% alcoholic solution of oc-naphthylamine, but an orange color if the solution is heated.17 None of the other diphenylamine derivatives which occur in smokeless powder give these tests.

Diphenylnitrosamine rearranges under the influence of mineral acids to form p-nitrosodiphenylamine. The latter substance is evidently formed in smokeless powder and is oxidized and nitrated by the products of the decomposition to form 2,4'- and 4,4'-dinitrodiphenylamine. Davis and Ashdown have isolated both of these substances from old powder, and have also prepared them by the nitration of diphenylnitrosamine in glacial acetic acid solution. Both substances on further nitration yield 2,4,4'-trinitrodiphenylamine, which represents the last stage in the nitration of diphenylamine by the products of the decomposition of smokeless powder. This material has been isolated from a sample of U. S. pyrocellulose powder which was kept at 65° in a glass-stoppered bottle for 240 days after the first appearance of red fumes. The several nitro derivatives of diphenylamine may be distinguished by color reactions with alcoholic solutions of ammonia, sodium hydroxide, and sodium cyanide, and some insight into the past history of the powder may be gained from tests on the alcohol extract with these reagents, but their pres-

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