formed. This at a lower temperature adds chlorine normally to
form 1,2,3-trichloropropane which gives glycerin on hydrolysis.
¿H--» ¿H --♦ ¿H-Cl--► ¿H-OH--♦ CH—ONOi
Nitroglycerin is formed and remains in solution if glycerin is added to a large excess of strong nitric acid. Heat is evolved, and cooling is necessary. The nitroglycerin is thrown out as a heavy oil when the solution is diluted with water. A further quantity of the substance is procured by extracting the dilute acid liquors with chloroform. Naoum reports that 100 grams of glycerin treated in this manner with 1000 grams of 99% nitric acid yields 207.2 grams of nitroglycerin analyzing 18.16% nitrogen (calc. 18.50% N) and containing a small amount of dinitroglycerin (glyceryl dinitrate). The yield of the trinitrate may be improved by the addition to the nitric acid of dehydrating agents such as phosphorus pentoxide, calcium nitrate, or strong sulfuric acid.
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