nitrocarbanilide is washed thoroughly with water and allowed to dry in the air.
Ten grams of crude tetranitrocarbanilide is added to a mixture of 16 grams of concentrated sulfuric acid (d. 1.84) and 24 grams of nitric acid (id. 1.51), and the material is heated on the steam bath for 1 hour with constant stirring. The mixture, after cooling, is treated with cracked ice and water, and filtered. The product, washed with 500 cc. of cold water, then with 500 cc. of hot water, and dried in the air, is hexanitrocarbanilide of satisfactory quality for use as an explosive.
Pure hexanitiocarbanilide crystallizes from acetone-ligroin in pale yellow rosettes which soften and darken at 204° and melt at 208-209° with decomposition. It yields picric acid when warmed with dilute sulfuric acid, and trinitroaniline when boiled with strong ammonia water. A deep ruby-red color is developed when hexanitrocarbanilide is allowed to stand at ordinary temperatures in contact with strong ammonia water. Tetranitrocar-banilide, dinitroaniline, trinitroaniline, picric acid, and dinitro-phenol do not give this color.
Hexanitrocarbanilide is a brisant high explosive suitable for use in boosters, reinforced detonators, detonating fuse, primer caps, etc. For the detonation of 0.4 gram, it requires 0.19 gram of mercury fulminate. It is slightly stronger than TNT in the sand test and of about the same sensitivity as tetryl in the drop test. It explodes spontaneously at 345°.
Hexanitroazobenzene may be prepared from dinitrochloroben-zene and hydrazine by the reactions indicated below:
The first of these reactions takes place in hot-water suspension in the presence of sodium or calcium carbonate. The resulting tetranitrohydrazobenzene is both nitrated and oxidized by the mixed acid in the next step. Pure 2,2',4,4',6,6'-hexanitroazoben-
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