from both the oc- and the ^-compounds. After two nitro groups have been introduced, conflicts of orienting tendencies arise and polynitro compounds are formed, among others, in which nitro groups occur ortho and para to one another. Only four nitro groups can be introduced into naphthalene by direct nitration.
The mononitration of naphthalene takes place easily with a mixed acid which contains only a slight excess of one equivalent of HN03.
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