later recommended a bomb of larger diameter, Bureau of Mines sand test bomb No. 2, as being able to differentiate more exactly between the different grades of detonators in commercial use. The test grew out of an earlier test which Snelling had developed in 1908 for measuring the strength of detonating agents. Starting

Figure 99. Walter O. Snelling. (Metzger A Son.) Devised the sand test. Has worked extensively with nitrostarch explosives and has patented many improvements in military and in mining explosives. Chemist at the U. S. Bureau of Mine«, 1908-1916; Director of Research, Trojan Powder Company, 1917—.

with the thought that true explosives, when subjected to a sufficiently strong initiating influence, detonate in such manner as to set free more energy than that which had been applied to them by the initiating charge, he tested several materials which failed to be true explosives and, although decomposed by the detonating agent, did not give off energy enough to continue their own decomposition and to propagate a detonation wave. Copper oxalate was the best of the "near explosives" which he tried. He found it possible to measure the initiating effect of mercury fulminate and of other initial detonators by tiring them in compositions consisting partly or wholly of copper oxalate, and then by chemical means determining the amount of the oxalate which had been decomposed. The experiments were carried out in a small steel bomb, the detonator was placed in the middle of a mass of oxalate or of oxalate composition, and sand was put in on top to fill the bomb completely. The fact that part of the sand was pulverized by the force of the explosion suggested that the mechanical effect of the initiator might perhaps serve as an approximate measure of the detonating efficiency; the oxalate was omitted, the bomb was filled entirely with sand, and the sand test was devised. Before Snelling left the Bureau of Mines in 1912 he hail made about 40 tests on ordinary and electric detonators. Storm and Cope extended the usefulness of the test and applied it not only to the study of detonators but also to the study of the materials out of which detonators are constructed, both initial detonating agents and high explosives.

Lead Azide

Lead azide is a more efficient detonating agent than mercury fulminate. It requires a higher temperature for its spontaneous explosion, and it does not decompose on long continued storage at moderately elevated tem|>eratures. It cannot be dead-pressed by any pressure which occurs in ordinary manufacturing operations. Lead azide pressed into place in a detonator capsule takes the fire less readily, or explodes from spark less readily, than mercury fulminate: For this reason the main initiating charge of lead azide in a blasting cap is generally covered with a layer of lead stvphnate, or of styphnatc-azide mixture or other sensitizer, which explodes more easily, though less violently, from fire, and serves to initiate the explosion of the azide.

Lead azide is not used in primers where it is desired to produce fire or flame from impact. Fulminate mixtures and certain mixtures which contain no fulminate are preferred for this purpose. Lead azide is used where it is desired to produce, either from flame or from impact, an initiatory shock for the detonation of a high explosive—in compound detonators as already described, and in the detonators of artillery fuzes. For the latter purpose, caps containing azide and tetryl (or other booster explosive) are

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