Carter in 1913 and studied further by Hoffman and Dame in 1919 and by Marshall in 1920.
Dinitrochlorobenzene reacts with 2 equivalents of aniline, when the materials are warmed together in the absence of solvent or when they are stirred together vigorously with water 80-90°, to form dinitrodiphenylamine in practically quantitative yield, along with 1 equivalent of aniline hydrochloride. The use of the second molecule of aniline to combine with the hydrogen chlo-» ride involves unnecessary expense, and the same results may be accomplished by means of some mineral alkali or acid-neutralizing substance like sodium acetate or sodium or calcium carbonate. The product, which is insoluble in water, separates in bright red needles. Pure 2,4-dinitrodiphenylamine, recrystallized from alcohol or from benzene, melts at 156-157°. The crude product is nitrated in one or in two stages to the hexanitro compound.
Preparation of Hexanitrodiphenylamine (Two-Stage Nitration). Seventy grams of aniline and 32 grams of precipitated calcium carbonate are stirred up together with water in such manner as to form a homogeneous suspension, and the mixture is heated to about 60°. Dinitrochlorobenzene, 150 grams, previously melted, is poured in slowly in a fine stream while the stirring is continued and the mixture is heated gradually to about 90°, the rate of heating being regulated by the progress of the reaction. The product is washed with hydrochloric acid to free it from aniline and calcium carbonate, then with water until free "from chlorides, and dried in the oven at 100°.
Fifty grams of finely powdered dinitrodiphenylamine is added in small portions at a time to 420 grams of nitric acid (d. 1.33), which is stirred vigorously while the temperature is maintained at 50-60°. The progress of the nitration is followed by observing the color change from
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