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is safest to avoid the use of sulfur with chlorate especially in non-fulminate mixtures. The second of the above-listed compositions is an undesirable one in this respect. In the third and fourth compositions, the cuprous thiocyanate serves both as a combustible and as an anti-acid, and it helps, particularly in the

Figure 106. Longitudinal Sections of Military Rifle Ammunition of the First World War. (Courtesy Emile Monnin Chamot.) The cartridge at the bottom, French 9.0-mm. Lehel rifle, the one above it, German 7.9-mm. Mauser, and the one above that, Canadian .30 caliber, all have anvils of the Berdan type integrally one with the metal of the cartridge case.

Figure 106. Longitudinal Sections of Military Rifle Ammunition of the First World War. (Courtesy Emile Monnin Chamot.) The cartridge at the bottom, French 9.0-mm. Lehel rifle, the one above it, German 7.9-mm. Mauser, and the one above that, Canadian .30 caliber, all have anvils of the Berdan type integrally one with the metal of the cartridge case.

third mixture, by supplying copper oxide which is a solid vehicle for the transfer of heat. The first and the last of the above-listed mixtures are the best. They contain no sulfur, and they contain lead enough to supply plenty of solid particles of hot material.

Gunnery experts ascribe a large part of the erosion of shotgun and rifle barrels to the action of the soluble salts which are produced from the materials of the primer compositions, particularly

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