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the space between the star and the wall of the tube is partly filled with candle comp. When the three materials have been introduced, they are rammed tightly into place. Then gunpowder, a star, and candle comp again are loaded into the tube and rammed down, and so on until the tube is charged. Damp candle comp, with a piece of black match leading to it and into it, is loaded at the top, pressed tightly into place, and allowed to dry. When a Roman candle is lighted, the candle comp begins to burn and to throw out a fountain of sparks. The fire soon reaches the star, ignites it, and flashes along the side of the star to light the gunpowder which blows the burning star, like a projectile, out of the tube.

Stars

Stars are pellets of combustible material. Those which contain neither aluminum nor magnesium nor Paris green have nothing in their appearance to suggest even remotely the magic which is in them. They are, however, the principal cause of the beauty of aerial pyrotechnic displays.

The components of star composition are mixed intimately and dampened uniformly with some solution which contains a binder, perhaps with gum-arabic water, perhaps with water alone if the composition contains dextrin, perhaps with alcohol if it contains shellac. Several different methods are used for forming the stars.

To make cut stars, the damp mixture is spread out in a shallow pan, pressed down evenly, cut into cubes, say % to % inch on the side, allowed to dry, and broken apart. Because of their corners, cut stars take fire very readily and are well suited for use in rockets and small aerial bombshells. Cylindrical stars are preferred for Roman candles.

For the preparation of a small number of stars, a star pump is a convenient instrument. This consists of a brass tube with a plunger which slides within it. The plunger has a handle and, on its side, a peg which works within a slot in the side of the tube— in such manner that it may be fixed in position to leave at the open end of the tube a space equal to the size of the star which it is desired to make. This space is then tightly packed with the damp mixture; the plunger is turned so that the peg may move through the longitudinal slot, and the handle is pushed to eject the star. ^

For large-scale production, a star plate or star mold assembly is best. This consists of three flat rectangular plates of hard wood or metal, preferably aluminum. One has a perfectly smooth surface. The second, which rests upon this, has many circular holes of the size of the stars which are desired. The damp mixture is dumped upon this plate, rubbed, pressed, and packed into the holes, and the surface of the plate is then wiped clcan. The third

Fioubb 28. A Star Plate or Star Board in Use. (Courtesy National Fireworks Company.)

plate is supplied with pegs, corresponding in number and position to the holes of the second plate, the pegs being slightly narrower than the holes and slightly longer than their depth. The second plate is now placed above a tray into which the stars may fall, and the stars are pushed out by putting the pegged plate upon it. In certain conditions it may be possible to dispense with the pegged plate and to push out the stars by means of a roller of soft crepe rubber.

Box stars are less likely to crumble from shock, and are accordingly used in large aerial bombshells. They are also used for festoons and for other aerial tableaux effects. Short pieces of

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