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cold anvil arid struck with a cold hammer, a very stunning disagreeable noise was produced and the faces of the hammer and anvil were indented. A few grains floated in a tinfoil capsule on hot oil exploded at 368°F. (186.7°C.). When a mixture of fine-and coarse-grain black powder was placed on top of a quantity of fulminate and the fulminate was fired, the black powder was blown about but it was not ignited and was recovered unchanged. Howard also attempted by means of alcohol to produce fulminating compounds from gold, platinum, antimony, tin, copper, iron, lead, nickel, bismuth, cobalt, arsenic, and manganese, but silver was the only one of these metals with which he had any success.

Brugnatelli in 1802 worked out a satisfactory method for the preparation of silver fulminate by pouring onto 100 grains of powdered silver nitrate first an ouncc of alcohol and then an ounce of nitric acid. After the fulminate had precipitated, the mixture was diluted with water to prevent it from dissolving again and immediately filtered. Silver fulminate explodes more easily from heat and from friction than mercury fulminate and is more spectacular in its behavior. It quickly became an object of amateur interest and public wonderment, one of the standard exhibits of street fakirs and of mountebanks at fairs. Liebig, who was born in 1803, saw a demonstration of silver fulminate in the market place at Darmstadt when he was a boy. He watched the process closely, recognized by its odor the alcohol which was used, went home, and succeeded in preparing the substance for himself. He retained his interest in it, and in 1823 carried out studies on the fulminates in the laboratory of'Gay-Lussac at Paris.

Mercury Fulminate

The commcrcial preparation of mercury fulminate is carried out by a process which is essentially the same as that which Howard originally recommended. Five hundred or 600 grams of

Chloroform mercury is used for each batch, the operation is practically on the laboratory scale, and several batches are run at the same time. Since the reaction produces considerable frothing, capacious glass balloons are used. The fumes, which are poisonous and inflammable, are passed through condensers, and the condensate, which contains alcohol, acetaldehyde, ethyl nitrate, and ethyl nitrite, is utilized by mixing it with the alcohol for the next batch.

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