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In each step several isomers are formed—only one of the possibilities in each case is indicated above—and the ortho and para compounds both go through similar series of reactions. The product is too sensitive and in the wrong physical state (liquid) for use as a military explosive. In short, for the manufacture of

Figure 45. Marina Marqueyrol, Inspecteur-Général des Poudres, France. 1919. Author of many researches on aromatic nitro compounds, nitrocellulose, smokeless powder, stabilizers and stability, chlorate explosives, etc.—published for the most part in the Mémorial des poudres and in the Bulletin de la société chimique de France.

Figure 45. Marina Marqueyrol, Inspecteur-Général des Poudres, France. 1919. Author of many researches on aromatic nitro compounds, nitrocellulose, smokeless powder, stabilizers and stability, chlorate explosives, etc.—published for the most part in the Mémorial des poudres and in the Bulletin de la société chimique de France.

military explosives toluene is the most valuable of the materials which occur in coal tar.

In time of war the industries of a country strive to produce as much toluene as possible. The effort results in the production also of increased quantities of other aromatic hydrocarbons, particularly of benzene, and these become cheaper and more abundant. Every effort is made to utilize them profitably for military purposes. As far as benzene is concerned, the problem has been solved through chlorobenzene, which yields aniline and phenoLby the Dow process, and hence picric acid, and which gives dinitro-chlorobenzene on nitration which is readily convertible, as will be described later, into picric acid and tetryl and several other

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