der is put into a closed system and warm air at 55-65° is circulated through it; the air takes up the alcohol and ether from the powder and deposits much of it again when it is passed through a condenser." It is then heated and again passed through the powder. In some European plants the air, after refrigeration, is passed upward through an absorption tower down which cresol or other suitable liquid is trickling. This removes the ether which was not condensed out by the cooling, and the ether is recovered from it by distillation. The whole process of solvent recovery requires careful control, for the colloid on drying tends to form a skin on its surface (the way a pot of glue does when drying) and the skin tends to prevent the escape of volatile matter from the interior of the powder grain.

6. Water-drying. Powder is now most commonly dried by the rapid water-drying process whereby the formation of a skin upon its surface is prevented and certain other advantages are gained. Water at 65° is circulated throughout the powder. The water causes the production of microscopic cracks and pores through which the alcohol and ether escape more freely. These substances leave the powder to dissolve in the water, and then the ether in particular evaporates out from the water. When the volatile solvent content of the powder is sufficiently reduced, the powder grains are taken out and the water with which they are superficially covered is removed in a dry-house or in a continuous dryer at 55-65°. The finished powder contains 3.0 to 7.5% of volatile solvent in the interior of the grain, the amount depending upon the thickness of the web, and 0.9 to 1.4% of external moisture, mostly water actually resident in the cracks or pores of the surface. The amount of moisture which the powder thus holds upon its surface is an important factor in maintaining its ballistic stability under varying atmospheric conditions. The amount ought to be such that there is no great tendency for the moisture to evaporate off in dry weather, and such also that there is no great tendency for the powder to take up moisture in damp weather. The importance of surface moisture is so considerable that the French powder makers, long before there was any thought of using warm water to dry the powder, were accustomed to submit it to a trempage or tempering by immersion in water for several days. Later, periods of air-drying were alternated

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