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John Bate and Hanzelet Lorrain understood that the heavier rockets require compositions which burn more slowly.

It is necessary to have compositions according to the greatness or the littleness of the rockets, for that which is proper for the little ones is too violent for the large—because the fire, being lighted in a large tube, lights a composition of great amplitude, and bums a great quantify of material,

Figure 23. Rocket, Lorrain, 1630. Substantially as rockets are made today. After the propelling charge has burned completely and the rocket has reached the height of its flight, the fire reaches the charge in the head which bursts and throws out large and small stars, serpents and grasshoppers, or English firecrackers. The container, which is loaded into the head of the rocket, is shown separately with several grasshoppers in the lower right-hand corner of the picture.

Figure 23. Rocket, Lorrain, 1630. Substantially as rockets are made today. After the propelling charge has burned completely and the rocket has reached the height of its flight, the fire reaches the charge in the head which bursts and throws out large and small stars, serpents and grasshoppers, or English firecrackers. The container, which is loaded into the head of the rocket, is shown separately with several grasshoppers in the lower right-hand corner of the picture.

and no geometric proportionality applies. Rockets intended to contain an ounce or an ounce and a half should have the following for their compositions.

Take of fine powder (gunpowder) passed through a screen or very fine sieve four ounces, of soft charcoal one ounce, and mix them well together.28

The charcoal makes the powder burn more slowly, and produces a trail of sparks when the rocket is fired.

Otherwise. Of powder sieved and screened as above one pound, of saltpeter one ounce and. a half, of soft charcoal

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