The pulped fibers still retain acid adsorbed or occluded on their surface. This is removed by poaching the nitrocellulose, by boiling it again, first for 4 hours with fresh water with or without the addition of dilute sodium carbonate solution,*7 then for 2 hours with water without addition of soda, then twice with water for 1 hour each time. The material is then washed at least 8 times by thorough agitation with cold water, and by decantation each time of at least 40% of the liquid. After the washing, the material undergoes screening, where it passes through apertures 0.022 inch in width, wringing, whereby its moisture content is reduced to 26-28%, and finally packing for shipment or for storage in containers which are hermetically sealed.

®T Not more than 10 gallons of sodium carbonate solution (t pound per gallon) for every 2000 pounds of nitrocellulose (dry weight).

Guncotton is made in substantially the same way as pyro-cellulose except that a stronger mixed acid containing approximately 24% nitric acid, 67% sulfuric acid, and 9% water is used. Long-fiber high-grade guncotton is usually manufactured by the pot process and with the use of mixed acid which is nearly anhydrous. Iron pots are generally used. For the nitration of 4 pounds of dry cotton, 140 pounds of acid is introduced into the pot and the cotton is immersed in it, pressed down, and allowed to digest for 20 or 30 minutes. The contents of several pots are centrifuged at once, and the product is stabilized in the same way as pyrocellulose except that it is not pulped.

There can be no doubt that, in the standard method of stabilizing nitrocellulose, there are, among the results which the poaching accomplishes, at least some which would have been accomplished much earlier during the boiling if the material at that time had been pulped. This seems especially evident with respect to the hydrolysis of easily hydrolyzed material adjacent to the inner wall of the tubular fibers. Olsen, discussing the standard method, has written, "The preliminary boiling tub treatment reduced the acidity of the fibers and of the interstitial material, but the pulping process, by macerating these fibers, has set free an additional amount of acid. It is, therefore, necessary to repurify the pyro-cotton by boiling." He discovered that a marked reduction in time and in cost could be secured by carrying out the pulping operation prior to the hydrolyzing boils. If the pulping is done at

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