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army of 2,000,000 men in France—an average of 25 masks per man. This was not waste; it was dire necessity, forced by the following sequence of events:

The Germans used:

1. Chlorine, on Apr. 21,1915, against unprotected troop«. By May 3, 1915, British troops were issued cotton cloth

Fio. 109.—British Hypo, P., or P.H. Helmet, showing skirt effect.

Fiu. 108.—Fi rat British gaa mask. Black Veil Reepirator.

pads soaked in a solution of sodium carbonate, sodium thiosulfate, and water. These were supplemented with boxes of cotton waste from which each soldier took a handful to stuff in his mouth and nostrils before fastening the pad over his face. The pads required frequent soaking. This form of protection was never regarded as more than a temporary* expedient.

By May 10, 1915, British troops in the Ypres sector were provided with the Black Veil Respirator (see Fig. 108). This consisted of a fourfold piece of black veiling about 1 yd. long and 8 in. wide. The center portion was padded with cotton and saturated with sodium carl>onaie, glycerine, and —- • ~ water, the glycerine having been added to keep the pad moist. Tied about the face, this respirator, however, did not

insure a gastight fit and was soon replaced with a new design.

2. Tear gat (T-Stoff), in shell beginning in January, 1915, but increasing to serious proportions in May and June. These tear pases caused very serious lacriination (an unprotected man was helpless) when present in a concentration only one six-thousandth of the lethal concentration of chlorine. To meet this threat the British issued the Hypo Helmet (set? Figs. 109 and 110). This helmet was made of flannel in the form of a sack which could be put over the head with the open ends tucked inside the blouse. The cloth was dipped in hypo (sodium thiosulfate), washing soda, and glycerine. A rectangular piece of

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