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and the liquid on evaporation gave the new acid in the form of a solid, white, non-crystalline, deliquescent mass of considerably greater weight than the starch which was taken for the experiment. Neither carbon dioxide nor oxalic acid was produced during the reaction, but the new acid on long standing, or on boiling, with nitric acid was converted to oxalic acid without the formation of carbon dioxide. Pelouze considered xyloidine to be a nitrate of starch. He observed that it was readily combustible, that it ignited at a temperature of 180° and burned with very

Figure 59. Theophile-Jules Pelouze (1807-1867). (Courtesy E. Berl.) Made many important contributions to organic and inorganic chemistry— ethereal salts, the first nitrile, borneol, glyceryl tributyrate, pyroxylin, improvements in the manufacture of plate glass. He nitrated paper in 1838 and was thus probably the first to prepare nitrocellulose. Reproduced from original in Kekule's portrait album.

Figure 59. Theophile-Jules Pelouze (1807-1867). (Courtesy E. Berl.) Made many important contributions to organic and inorganic chemistry— ethereal salts, the first nitrile, borneol, glyceryl tributyrate, pyroxylin, improvements in the manufacture of plate glass. He nitrated paper in 1838 and was thus probably the first to prepare nitrocellulose. Reproduced from original in Kekule's portrait album.

considerable violence leaving practically no residue. The observation, he says, led him to make certain experiments which, he believed, might have practical application in artillery. Paper, dipped into nitric acid of specific gravity 1.5 and left there long enough for the acid to penetrate into it (generally 2 or 3 minutes), removed, and washed thoroughly, gave a parchment-like material which was impervious to moisture and was extremely combustible. Pelouze had nitrocellulose in his hands, but evidently did not recognize that the material, which had not changed greatly in its physical form, was nevertheless nitrated through-

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