A platinum gauze anode is used. It is immersed in an acetone solution of calcium nitrate which is kept continuously saturated with ethylene which is bubbled through in such manner that it sweeps over the surface of the platinum gauze. An aluminum cathode is used, in a catholyte consisting of a nitric acid solution of calcium nitrate, and the cathode compartment is filled to a higher level since the liquid moves into the anode compartment as the electrolysis progresses. After the electrolysis, the cathode liquid is fortified with nitric acid for use again. The anode liquid is neutralized with slaked lime, and distilled in vacuum for the recovery of the acetone, and the residue, after the removal of calcium nitrate, washing, and drying, consists of a mixture of nitroglycol and dinitrodiglycol and is known as Oxinite. Dynamites made from Oxinite differ but little from those made from nitroglycerin.
Pcntryl, or 2,4,6-trinitrophenylnitraminoethyl nitrate, is another explosive which is derived from ethylene. It is a nitric ester, an aromatic nitro compound, and a nitroaminc. The substance was described in 1925 by Moran who prepared it by the action of mixed acid on 2,4-dinitrophenylethanolamine (large orange-yellow crystals from alcohol, m.p. 92°) procured by the interaction of dinitrochlorobenzene with ethanolamine. von Herz later prepared pentryl by the nitration of /3-hydroxyethylaniline, a material which is more commonly called phcnylethanolamine and is now available commercially^in this country, and was granted
British and German patents for its use for certain military purposes. The genesis of pentryl from ethylene, through the inter-mediaey both of ethanolamine and of phcnylethanolamine, is indicated below. The preparation and properties of pentryl have been studied extensively by LeRoy V. Clark at the U. S. Bureau of Mines. By the reaction of dinitrochlorobenzene in the presence of sodium hydroxide with ethanolamine in alcohol solution at 70-80° he procured dinitrophenylethanolamine in 70% yield. The alcohol solution was filtered for the removal of sodium chloride, which was found to be mixed with a certain quantity of the by-product tetranitrodiphenylethanolamine (lemon-yellow fine powder, m.p. 222°); it was then concentrated to about one-third its volume, and deposited crystals of the product on cooling. This «material, dissolved in concentrated sulfuric acid and nitrated by
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