Figur* 137. Web $ ling adjustment.

b. Good Position* The three elements of a good position arc bone support, muscular relaxation, and a natural point of aim on an aiming point.

1 I I Bone support« Firing positions are designed us foundations for the rifle. It should be stressed that a good foundation for the rifle is important to good shooting, When a firer uses a weak foundation I position J for the rifle, without bone support, he will not be able to apply the fundamentals of shooting.

121 Muscular relaxation. The firer must learn to relax as much as possible in the various firing positions. Undue muscle strain or tension cause* trembling which is transmitted to the rifle-However, in all positions a certain amount of controlled muscular tension is needed. ()nl> through practice and achieving a natural point of aim will the firer learn muscular relaxation.

<31 Natural point of aim. Since the rifle becomes an extension of the body, it is necessary to adjust the position until the rifle points naturally at the target. When the firer lakes his position he should cloRe his eyes, relax, and then open his eyes. With proper sight alinement. the position of the front sight will indicate the natural point of aim. By moving his feet or body* and by breath control, the firer can shift the natural point of aim to the desired aiming point.

c. Additional Positions, In addition to the six firing positions discussed in paragraph 3M the variations of the sitting position and the squatting position can be of value. While not as steady as the prone position« they do enable the firer to fire across obstacle* such as fallen timer and low walla.

Ill Open-leg (jig ¡3HK For the open-leg position, the sling is shortened about to 7.3-CM 12 to 3 inches I from the prone poRition adjustment. The firer then faces half right from the target, crosses the left foot over the right foot, and sits down. Me extend* hi?* legs a comfortable distance and spreads his feet approximately 00 cm 136 inches! apart. Rending forward at the waist, the sniper alines his left upper arm over the left knee and flown along the left shinbone. With the right hand at the butt of the rifle, he pushes the rifle forward and places the butt into the right shoulder. He then moves the right hand forward, grasps the small of the stock, and lowers the upper arm until it rests inside the right knee. By pointing his toes inward, he prevents his knees from spreading and maintains pressure on his upper arms. The position is completed by relaxing the weight forward and assuming the correct stock weld.

(21 Cross-leg (fig 139). The difference between the cross-leg and the open-leg positions is very slight. For the cross-leg position, the firer proceeds as for the open-leg position except that after sitting dow n he simply keeps his feet in place and positions his upper arms inside his knees. Many firers use the cross-leg position because it can be assumed quickly.

(31 Cross-ankle (fig 140). For this position the firer crosses his ankles, sits down, and slides his feet forward. Bending at the waist, he places his upper arms inside his knees. As in the other positions, it is mandatory that adjustment of the natural point of aim be accomplished by body movement and not bv muscle tension. In the sitting position this is done by moving either foot, both feet, or the buttocks until the sights and target are alined.

(4) Supported sitting position (fig 141). The supported sitting position presumes that the firer is in an area or position where he can or must assume a modified sitting position to obtain a field of fire and observation into his target area. To assume the position he prepares a firing platform for his rifle or rests his rifle on the raised portion of his position. Caution must be exercised to insure that the barrel or operating parts do not touch the support. He then assumes a comfortable sitting position to the rear of the rifle, grips the small of the stock with his right hand, placing the butt of the rifle into his right shoulder; his left hand is on the small of the stock to assist in assuming a good stock weld and to acquire the proper eye relief. He then rests his elbows upon the inside of his knees similar to the standard cross-legged position. Adjustments to the position can be made by varying the position of the elbows on the inside of the knees or by varying the body position, as this position may be tiring.

Rifle Open Leg Sitting Position

Figure IJH. Open-leg Milting position.

M14 Sitting Positions

Figure 139. Croit-leg fitting position.

Figure 139. Croit-leg fitting position.

Condition Zero Figuren

Figure i40. Cross-ankle sitting position.

Figure lit. Supported titling position

< >l Squatting. The squalling position is a relatively steady position whirl* ran be assumed rapidly. Since only the feet touch the ground, it is on excellent position to use in mud, shallow wairr. or a ronlam inated arui. It is best suited for use on level ground or on ¿¿round that slopes gentk downward. In assuming the squatting position, the firer faces ihe target and executes a half right face. He spreads liis feet a com fortable distance apart and squats as '°w as possible. For maximum stability both feet should be flat on the ground. The left upper arm is placed firmly against the inside of the left knee, and the rifle butt is positioned in the pocket formed in the right shoulder. He urips the smoll of the stock with his right hand, lowers his elbow and blocks it against the inside of his right knee. The firer then obtains a spot weld.

d. Checklist. The following checklist is general in nature and with minor variation* can be used to check each of the firing positions to insure that it adhere« to the fundamentals.

(I) Rifle is vertical (optical sight horizontal crosshair is level I.

<2* I.eft hand is forward to upper sling swivel I if possible).

Rifle rests in the V formed by the left thumb and forefinger and is supported by the hee1 of the hand with fingers relaxed.

Ml Left elbow is approximately under the receiv er.

Hi I Shoulders nrv approximately level to prevent the rifle from canting.

I 7 i Rutt of rifle is close to neck and positioned in the pocket of the shoulder.

Face is firmly fixed on the stock l stock weld I with proper e\e relief.

<01 There i« space between trigger finger and «lock.

( 101 Trigger finger presses straight to the rear.

e. Position TYtining. Position training should be conducted by experienced personnel» Each prospective firer will need individual attention when he is selecting and developing his positions. During initial position training, a tight sling is necessary in order to condition firervs muscles. Correct sling tension has been obtained when it becomes necessary for the firer, in placing the butt of his rifle into his shoulder to apply forward pressure on the butt with his right hand. After the firer has become accustomed to the positions, it may be necessary to adjust the sling in order to maintain correct sling tension in each position. Use of the hinged butt plate, most firers find, eliminates any slipping of the butt in the shoulder, thereby adding support to the position and reducing the wobble area. Experience will develop the firer *s prone position to a point where his wobble area will not be noticeable to him. Using the sling in conjunction with the supported or nonsupported positions will add to the firer's ability to hold the weapon steady.

116. Trigger Control a. The act of firing the rifle without disturbing the aim is considered the most important fundamental of shooting. Poor shooting is usually caused by disturbing the aim just before or as the bullet leaves the barrel and is the result of jerking the trigger or flinching. The trigger need not be jerked violently to spoil the aim; even a slight.

sudden pressure of the trigger finger is enough to cause the barrel to waiver and spoil the sight alinement. Flinching is the involuntary movement of the body, tensing the muscles of the arm, the neck, and the shoulder in anticipation of the shock of recoil or the sound of the rifle firing. A firer can correct these errors by understanding and applying trigger control.

b. The slack or free play in the trigger is taken up first, and as resistance is met the firer perfect* his aim while continuing the steadily increasing pressure until the hammer falls (fig 142). When done properly, the firer will not know the exact instant the rifle will fire. If he does not. know the exact instant the rifle will fire, he will not anticipate the shock of recoil or the sound of the rifle firing.

c. Jerking the trigger, flinching, bucking, tensing of the facial and hand muscles, and closing the eyes when the shot is fired, indicate shot anticipation. By being convinced of these errors and conscientiously applying the correct trigger control, the firer will be able to overcome the tendency to anticipate the shot.

d. The technique of trigger control may vary slightly due to the instability of a position. If. while increasing his pressure, an error occurs in the sight alinement or sight picture, the firer holds what pressure he has on the trigger until the correct sight alinement or sight picture is reestablished; then he continues the pressure until the rifle fires (fig 1431. Usually the result is a surprise shot that is good.

Proper Trigger Pull
Figure ¡42. Smooth trigger pull
Proper Trigger Pull


«cht picture slack

«cht picture time in seconds

Figur* ¡43. Int*rntpt*d trigger pull.

e. In all position*» one of the best methods of developing proper trigger control is through dry firing. In dry firing, not only is the coach able to detect errors, but the individual firer is able to detect his own errors since there is no recoil to conceal the rifle's undesirable movements. Where possible, trigger control practice should be in* tegrated in all phases of marksmanship training. The mastery of proper trigger control takes patience, hard work, concentration, and a great deal of self«discipline.

117. Sight Adjustment

When u shot or shot group is fired and is not in the desired location on the target, the sights must be moved in order to move the shot or shot group- to the proper location. The sights on the M14 rifle have the following characteristics:

а. Kach dick of elevation or windage on the standard issue M 14 rifle is worth approximately 1 minute of angle and moves the strike of the bullet 2.8 centimeters {approximately I inch) on the target for each 100 meters of range.

б. Kach click of windage on the national match IM21I rifle will move the strike of the bullet 1.4 centimeters per KM) meters of range, (32 clicks to left or right of zero line), while the elevation is the same as for the standard issue rifle. If the rifle is equipped with a hooded rear sight aperture, it has a minute elevation change capability. To move the strike of the bullet up one-half minute, the hood must be rotated so that the notch in the hood is up. ff the notch in the hood is already up and a 'A

minute increase in elevation is desired, the elevation knob must be moved up one click, and the hood rotated so the notch is down. The reverse procedure will move the sights downward.

c. Mechanical windage zero is determined by alinging the sight base index line and the center line of the windage gage. The location of the movable index line indicates the windage used or the wind* age zero of the rifle; e.g., if the index line is to the left of the center line of the gage, it is a left reading. Windage zero can be determined by simply counting the number of clicks back to the mechanical zero.

d. The elevation zero for any range is determined by counting the number of clicks down to mechanical elevation zero I hooded aperture notch down).

e. The sniperscope has an elevation and a windage turret assembly for making sight adjustments. Both are identical in appearance and movement. Each turret (fig 144} has a dial with an arrow indicating direction of movement; the elevation dial reads UP; the windage dial reads R for right. Both windage and elevation adjustments are graduated in minutes of angle, shifting the strike of the round 1.4 cm for each 100 meters of range in the direction indicated by the arrow.

/. Sight adjustment is a very important aspect of training. A recommended exercise is the nine-round sight drill. The firer fires three 3-round shot groups moving the sights in windage and / or elevation after each group fired, without removing the rifle from the shoulder between groups, if possible.

Group Assemblies And Names M14 Rifle
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  • Gianfranco
    When shouldering a rifle do I apply forward pressure?
    8 years ago

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