Section I. FUNDAMENTALS
The purpose of advanced rifle marksmanship (ruining is lo enable selected personnel to obtain a high degr«ft of proficiency and expertise that is not normully required of the average rifleman. To be able to obtain a first round hit on target* at varying extended range*« the firer must be highly skilled in applying the fundamental* of marksmanship to include aiming, position*, trigger control. sight adjustment. effect* of weather» and zeroing. It aboii Id be a requirement that every firer periodically refmtiiliarixe him*elf with the*e fundamental* regardle** of hi* *hooting experience. Kven the experienced firer will develop a deficiency from time to time in the application of fundamental* that i* often ma*ked by perfection of other fundamental*. The fundamentals taught in advanced rifle mark*man*hip differ from those taught the average *o!dier cmly in degree. In order for the firer to achieve the high degree of perfection desired in advanced rifle marksmanship, he should be equipped with the be*t weapon and ammunition available. The sniper's weapon in the US Army is a national match grade MI4 rifle« selected for accuracy* and renamed the M21 rifle. It is equipped with a telescopic sight, but also retains the iron
The first fundamental taught to the firer is aiming. It i* one of the mo*t important fundamentals and provide* a mean* whereby the firer can check the effectiveness of hi* po*ition and trigger control in later phase* of training and shooting. Instruction in ainiinu is divided into five phases: relationship between the eye and sights, sight alinement, sight picture, breathing and aiming process, and aiming exer«:i*e*. The explanation of these phases is designed to supplement that found in chapter 3.
a. R+Utionship Between the Eye Mtid Sights. Variations in the position of the eye with respect to the rear sight will cause variations in the image received by the eye. The placement of the eye is called "eye relief." Proper eye relief, subject to minor variations, is approximately 7.5 cm 13 ink When using the sniper scope (fig 13 IK the eye relief is approximately <) cm 1314 in! Ifig 132). The best method of fixing eye relief i* with the spot weld. To clarify the u*e of the eye in the aiming process, one must understand that the eye is capable of instantaneous focus from one distance to another. It cannot, however, be focused at two distances simultaneously. To achieve an undistoreted image while aiming, the firer must position hi* head so that he looks straight and not out of the corner or top of his aiming eye. If the head position causee the shooter to look across the bridge of his nose or out from under hi* eyebrow, the eye muscles will be strained. This strain will produce involuntary eye movement which reduces the reliability of vision. This will not only affect performance, but the inability to see will also have a damaging psychological effect upon the firer. The eye will function beat in its natural forward position. Do not fix vision on the sight picture for more than several seconds. When the eyes are focused on a single image for a time, the image is burned into the area of perception. This can be illustrated by staring at a black sport on a piece of paper for 20 to 30 seconds and then shifting the eye* lo a white wall or ceiling. A ghost image of the black spot will appear, with a corresponding loss of visual activity in the area of the image. This effect upon the firer's eyes is quite important. A burned-in sight picture will dull visual activity in the critical area of perception, and this image may possibly be mistaken for a true sight picture. Either effect will seriously restrict performance.
b. Sight Alinement. Sight alinement is the relationship between the front and rear sight with respect to the eye. This is the most important aspect of aiming, as errors in alinement create angular changes in the position of the axis of the bore in relation to the line of sight. When using an aperture rear sight and a post front sight, center the top of the front sight post horizontally and vertically in the rear aperture. It has been found that this is the natural method of alining sights. When using the sniperscope, the firer must have a clear field of view. Any shadow effects Ifig 1331 indicate misalinement.
I'0*IK RING LOCK
lockfng rfng mounting rings
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