Chapter Rifle Marksmanship Fundamentals

Section I. GENERAL

36. Purpose and Scope

To be proficient, a combat rifleman must be able to detect targets, determine the ranges to targets, and hit the targets when he fires at them. There are many variables affecting an individual's ability to detect and determine the ranges to combat targets (chap ft). However, the factors affecting a rifleman's ability to fire and hit the target are relatively constant. Essentially, the rifleman must be able to assume a firing position which enables him to hold the rifle in such a manner that he and his rifle form a single, steady unit. He must know how to correctly aline his rifle on the target and he must be able to fire his rifle without disturbing this alinement. The skills needed to accomplish these requirements are known collectively as rifle marksmanship fundamentals.

37. Karly Firing Exercise and Recoil Demon stration

A recoil demonstration and an early-firing exercise should be conducted for soldiers who have little or no previous marksmanship experience. The recoil demonstration will clearly show soldiers that they have nothing to fear from recoil if they handle the weapon properly. The early firing exercise is designed to motivate soldiers toward marksmanship training.

Recoil Demonstration. A recoil demonstration »hoiilri be conducted before the soldier fires the service rifle for the first time. The demonstration is fired by a well-trained rifleman. He fires the first round while holding the rifle to his side, in one hand. Next, he fires a round whild holding the butt of the weapon tightly against his thigh. The third round is fired with the rifle butt pressed firmly against the demonstrator's groin. A fourth round is fired with the butt of the rifle placed firmly against the pit of the stomach. The final round will usually convince even the most skeptical, since it is fired with the rifle butt pressed firmly against the demonstrators chin. As long as the demonstrator keeps the rifle butt pressed firmly against his body, he will have no difficulty in performing the demonstration. The soldiers should be instructed in the principle of pressing the butt firmly against the body to avoid the effects of recoil.

h. Early Firing Exerciser. After receiving a brief orientation on range procedures, safety, and the prone position, each soldier fires three rounds at a 25-meter target. When all soldiers have completed firing, they are assembled at a central location to witness a well-trained rifleman fire nine rounds at a 25-meter target within a time period shorter than the time allowed for each soldier to fire his three rounds. By comparing their targets with that of the well-trained rifleman, the need for further marksmanship training will become obvious.

Section II. MARKSMANSHIP FUNDAMENTALS

38. The Integrated Act of Shooting The integrated act of shooting is the application of the skills necessary to fire a rifle accurately. The eomponents of the integrated act of shooting are aiming and steady hold. n. Aiming.

Ih Sight picture. In aiming, the firer is concerned with correctly pointing his rifle so the projectile will hit the target when he fires. To do this, he must have the rear sight, the front sight blade and the target, or aiming point, in their proper relationship—known as sight picture. A correct sight picture is obtained when the tight» are perfectly alinedand the aiming point (target) is in the correct relationship to the front sight blade (fig 611. Sight picture includes two basic elements: sight alinement, and placement of the aiming point.

(a) Sight alinement. To obtain correct sight alinement, the sights are alined as shown in figure 62. Notice that the top center of the front tight blade is exactly in the center of the rear sight aperture. If an imaginary horizontal line were drawn through the center of the rear sight aperture, the top of the front sight blade would touch this line. If an imaginary vertical line were drawn through the center of the rear sight aperture, the line would bisect the front sight blade. The firer insures that he has perfect sight alinement by

Rifle Fundamentals
Figur* 61. Comet tight plctun.
Rifle Fundamentals
Figure 62. Corrttt tight *ltn*ment.

concentrating hit attention and focusing hit eye on the front tight blade through the indiatinct or fuuy appearing rear tight aperature. By doing thU any errors in tight alinement can be easily detected and corrected.

(b) Placement of the Miming point. The aiming point (target on which the firer hat alined hit rifle tightal it correctly placed when it it centered on and appeart to touch the top of the front tight blade. II the aiming point it correctly petitioned, an imaginary vertical line drawn through the center of the front tight blade will appear to cut it in half (fig 631.

121 Importance of night alinement.

(*) At some point in his marksmanship training, a soldier may experience difficulty in hitting the target because of errort in aiming. The trouble may be either incorrect tight alinement or improper placement of the aiming point. If the firer under »land* the principles of aiming, he wilt rarely commit both error* simultaneously. The reason for thi* tie* in the firer a inability to focus hut eye on two objects at different distance* at the name time. If the firer focuses his eye on the aiming point, the rifle sights will appear hazy and indistinct; therefore, the problem is whether sight alinement or placement of the aiming point is of the greater importance to the firer. An error in either can cause the projectile to miss the aiming point ifig 641. Sight alinement is the relationship between the front and rear sights with respect to the firer's eye. An error in sight alinement will result in an error that increases proportionately as the range to the target increases. On the battlefield, a near miss as a result of an error in placement of the aiming point can be as effective as a point-of-aim hit. For example, a soldier is approximately 20 inches wide. Consequently, a rifleman could be several inches off his desired aiming point (center of visible mass! and still hit an enemy soldier. However, if the error was due to sight alinement. the bullet would miss a man-stxe target by as much as several feet, depending on the range. The correct relationship between the front sight blade and the rear sight aperture (sight alinementl is much more important than the placement of the aiming point. Figure 64 depicts some common errors in aiming and the resulting impact of the projectile.

Fi ft tu* 63. Correct placement of the miming point.

40mm Artillary Projectile Identification
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