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CHAPTER t TARGET DETECTION

Section I. GENERAL

64. Purpose

Even the most skilled marksmen is useless if he cannot find the target. For the combat rifleman, finding the target can be even more of a problem than hitting it. Except during the final stages of the assault, it is a rare soldier who fails to use some cover and/or concealment when he is in the vicinity of enemy units. Consequently, considerable emphasis must be placed on teaching soldiers the techniques of detecting targets as they will appear on the battlefield. As used in this manual, the term "target detection" means the process of locating, marking, and determining the range to combat targets. These targets may be either single or multiple, stationary or moving. They can also be completely hidden. The purpose of this chapter is to outline procedures for teaching soldiers how to detect enemy personnel on the battlefield under varying degrees of mobility, concealment, and visibility.

65. Training Concepts

Target detection training is based on concepts governing the usual behavior and employment of infantry units, and the individuals within those units on the battlefield. These concepts include:

a.Enemy personnel are seldom seen except in the assault.

b.The range at which individual enemy soldiers can be detected rarely exceeds 300 meters.

c.Many indications can reveal the location of the enemy. Among the more common are movement, sounds of movement, sound and/or muule flash of a firing weapon, and the reflection of light from shiny objects. However, any of these indications will usually be sensed for only a brief time.

d. A combat target does not have to be visible in order to be hit by rifle fire. An coemy soldier who has been observed moving into a concealed position can be effectively engaged by using a nearby feattue as a reference point.

Section IV. RANGE ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT

66. Location

Since target detection training is usually conducted concurrently with other firing exercises, the targe* detection range (si should be located nearby (within 10 minutes movement time of) the firing ranges. It is alio essential that target detection ranges be located in areas having good natural vegetation (fig 65). The observation lines of target detection ranges must be placed on terrain which will approximate good defensive locations for units occupying that partciular area.

67, Construction a. The observation line should be among the first areas of the target detection rauge to be constructed. The reason for this is that the location of all down range panels, sound systems, and any necessary trimming of foliage depends on the degree of visibility from the observation line. The observation line should be wide enough to accommodate 50 points. The distance between observation points should be no closer than 2 meters.

An observation line of this site is sufficient to accommodate half of a 200 man unit 450 two-man teams).

6. The fan of observation ahould cover an area between 30 degrees left of the left flank point of the observation line to 30 degrees right of the right flank point. Ideally, to provide maximum fk 4llty in conducting exercises in range determination, the target detection range should have a depth in excess of 500 meters. Installations having limited training space can conduct satisfactory training on ranges having a depth of at least 300 meters.

c. Both lettered and numbered panels are pieced throughout the observation area. The lettered panels serve two purposes: first, they divide the range into sectors defining a rifleman's area of responsibility; and second, they serve as refersnce points for marking targeta. The numbered panels are used during exercises to locate sound targets only. Consequently, these panels should be constructed so they can be easily raised or lowered as required.

10ft

M14a1 Rifle
Figure 85. Target detection rtngr.

d. The number of panels needed depends upon the siw of the range. For a range having a 50-point observation line and a depth of 300 meters, approximately seven lettered panels and 14 numbered panels will be required.

e. In addition to the panels, numbered stakes are also placed down range. These stakes should not be visible from the observation line since they are for use only by instructors and target men in presenting various target situations. As in the case of the panels, the number of stakes required will depend upon the depth of the range. As a guide, a range having a depth of 300 meterĀ« should have approximately 150 stakes. In placing numbered stakes a method should be used to provide easy reference to stake locations. One such method is to divide the range into three sectors, A. B, and C. Stakes are then numbered beginning at the maximum depth of the range and proceeding forward to the observation line. All stakes in one sector would have the sector letter following the number. For example, if the right sector is designated A, all numbers on stakes in that sector will be followed by the letter A. Stakes in the center and left sectors will have the letter B and C, respectively, after the number.

/. The location of ail panels and stakes must be recorded on the master trud sheets (fig 86).

g. For proper control of target men, it is necessary to use sound equipment throughout the observation area. Since problems of adequate sound vary according to location, it is best that a sound survey be conducted of each target detection range before the equipment is installed.

fu The exact positioning of panels, stakes, and sound equipment should be checked from the observation line. It is desirable that sound equipment be concealed from the observation line; however, this is not an absolute necessity.

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