IMAGINARY STRAIGHT LINE PASSES THROUGH 8ARREL, RECEIVER, RIGHT SHOULDER ANO CENTER OF RIGHT BUTTOCK
Figure 101. Bipod supported prone position with the M14A 1 rifle.
2. The legs should be spread well apart with the toes pointing outward and, if the conformation of the body permits, the heels should be on the ground.
.?. The back should be arched, the chest off the ground and the shoulders parallel to the ground.
4. The left arm and wrist should be straight, with no part of the arm touching the ground.
5. The right upperarm should form an angle as near to 90 degrees to the side as the conformation of the firer's body will permit.
131 Bipod supported foxhole position. The bipod supported foxhole position (fig 102} is primarily a defensive position. It is also used in offensive operations where the automatic rifleman is required to fire from high cover, e.g., deep ditches, chest-deep ravines, shell craters, and high road bands.
(a) The bipod supported foxhole position is assumed as follows:
/. The rifleman places the bipod legs on the elbow rest. iThil may require moving the parapet or sandbag cover forward.)
2. He leans forward until his chest is squarely against the forward wall of the hole.
3. He raises the hinged shoulder rest and places the butt of the rifle into the shoulder. He raises his head, places the stock firmly against the neck with the right hand, lowers his head, and places the cheek naturally against the stock.
4. lie extends his left arm over the forward edge of the hole and grasps the front handgrip with the left hand. The left arm and v\rist should l>e straight. He exerts a strong* rearward pressure on the front handgrip.
5. He then places his right elbow on solid support inside the parapet so that the right up-perarm forms an angle of ()0 degrees to 43 degrees to tile side. The weapon should not rest on, or touch. an> support other than the bipod»
L£> T ARM AND HAND STRAIGHT
CHEST SQUARELY ACAIN^TfJ rHONT WALl Of FOXHOUE
Figure ¡02. Bipod supported foxhole position with (he M14AI rifle.
(b) The following points should be checked on this position:
/. The shoulders should be parallel to the ground.
2. The grip of the right and left hands should be identical to that used in the bipod supported prone position.
3. The left arm and wrist should be straight. The right upper arm should be as near to 90° degree to the side as the conformation of the firer's body will permit.
84. Integrated .»vet of Automatic Rifle Shooting, M14 (Modified)
a. Aiming. See paragraph 82«.
b. Steady Hold Factors. Application of the steady hold factors with the M 14 (modified! differs from that with the M 1 4 A I. This is due primarily to weapon design.
( I ) Steady hold factors (unsupported positions). When firing from the kneeling, kneeling supported (without bipod), and standing positions, semiautomatic fire should be employed. The steady hold factors, affecting weapon stability in these positions, are identical to those described in paragraph 38 6.
(2) Steady hold factors (bipod supported positions). The eight steady hold factors affecting weapon stability when employing the M14 (modified! in the bipod supported prone or foxhole positions are:
(at Grip of the left hand. The firer initially forms a loop in the sling by sliding the keeper forward to a point approximately > inches from the upper sling swivel. He then inserts the fingers of the left hand into the loop (the thumb on the outside !, forms a clenched fist, and applies constant pressure downward and rearward. The firer's left arm should be straight and should not come in contact with the ground (fig. 104. 1051; however, the firer's body conformation may necessitate modifying the position of the left arm. Altering the position of the left arm is acceptable as long as the firer is able to maintain a constant firm downward and rearward pressure.
(b) The /tinged shoulder rest and right shoulder. See paragraph 82 d(2t.
let The grip of the right hand. Place the right hand at the small of the stock with the thumb over the small of the stock. The forefinger (any part of the finger from the tip of the second joint! is placed on the trigger. The trigger finger should not touch the side of the stock. The remaining fingers of the right hand are curled around the small of the stock. With the right hand, pull the weapon firmly into tlie shoulder.
(d) Right elbow. As previously mentioned, the right elbow aids in forming a pocket In the right •boulder and in stabilising the position. The firer's shoulders should be level (para 82 444)1.
(e) Position of the cheek (spot weld). The position of the cheek (spot weld I is the point of firm contact between the firer's cheek and thumb on the small of the stock. It is obtained by lowering the cheek to the thumb, which is curled over the small of the stock, and rolling up a pad of flesh against the cheekbone to act as a buffer. The spot weld enables the firer's eye to be positioned the same distance behind the rear sight aperture each time the rifle is aimed and fired. This causes the diameter of the rear sight aperture to appear the same each time a sight picture is obtained, thus further assisting in maintaining»-correct sight allnement. If the soldier is unable to obtain a i pot weld, he should use a stock weld by placing his cheek directly against the stock. The stock weld, if properly used, will achieve the same results as will the spot weld.
if) Breathing. See paragraph 38 6 46).
(g) Muscular tension. See paragraph 82 <1171.
(h) Trigger control. See paragraph 82 4181.
c. Firing Positions.
\ 11 Pre firing checks. The automatic rifleman must make five preftring checks on the M14 (modified) before firing. These checks are as follows:
(a) Selector. The selector is checked to insure it is set for the desired type of fire.
fb) Sling. The sling is loosened and made free of the trigger and magazine well and the keeper adjusted by hiding it forward to a point approximately 5 inches from the upper sling swivel to form a loop in the sling.
(c) Spindle valve. The spindle valve is checked to insure that the slot is perpendicular to the barrel.
(d) Gas cylinder plug. The gas cylinder plug is tightened with the combination tool. Should it become loose, the rifle will fire sluggishly or fail to fire.
(2) The unsupported underarm firing position (fig 103). The underarm position is designed primarily for use in the assault and for engaging close In, fleeting targets; however, it can be used in any situation which requires the soldier to fire while moving. This position is assumed as follows:
(a) Face the target with the feet spread approximately shoulder width apart.
(b) Place the left foot in front of the right (one 30'inch step) with most of the weight on the lead foot.
(c) Slightly bend both legs at the knees and lean forward at the waist as In a boxer's crouch.
id) With the right hand, grasp the small of the stock and with the forearm, hold the stock firmly against the side of the body at a point between the armpit and the waist.
M With the left hand, grasp the rifle firmly at a point just short of the front sling swivel. The thumb and fingers should not be placed over the handguard as it becomes extremely hot after firing several magaainea automatically.
if) Depress the muzzle of the rifle slightly so you can observe the strike of the rounds, thus avoiding overshooting and taking advantage of ricochets.
(3) Bipod supported prone position 4fig 104). The bipod supported prone positoon with the M14 rifle (modified) is the same as with the M14A1 except for the use of the sling as outlined in b above. The proper method of assuming the bipod fupported prone position is the same as outlined in paragraph 83 b. Particular attention should be focused on the following points to insure that the firer has assumed the correct position.
Figure 104. Bipod supported prone potition with the Ml4 rifle (modifiedf.
Figure 104. Bipod supported prone potition with the Ml4 rifle (modifiedf.
(a) The body should be alined so that the ax is of the rifle, if extended to the rear, would intersect the firer'» shoulder and the center of hi« right buttock.
(b) The legs should be spread well apart with the toes pointing outward, and if the conformation of the body permits, the heels should be on the ground.
(c) The back should be slightly arched with the firer's chest off the ground and the shoulders parallel to the ground.
fd) The left arm should be straight, exerting a downward, rearward pressure and should not be touching the ground.
fe) The right upper arm should form an angle of 90 degrees with the ground, so far as the conformation of the firer's body will permit.
<41 Bipod supported foxhole position (fig I OS I. The bipod supported foxhole position with the Ml 4 rifle (modified! is the same as the bipod supported foxhole position with the M14A1 rifle, except the position of the hands are as explained in paragraph 84 6.
85. ¡Night Firing Positions a. Mode of Fire. When engaging targets during periods of limited visibility, the best mode of fire is automatic fire in three round bursts.
b. Firing Position. The recommended firing position for use during periods of limited visibility is the bipod supported prone position with a slight modification (fig 1 19). During periods of limited visibility, the firer cannot use his sights. Therefore, to effectively engage targets during periods of limited visibility, the firer assumes the bipod supported prone position, establishes a raised-stock weld (looks 2 to 3 inches above the sights on a level plane with the barrel), points the weapon at the target, and fires three-round bursts. The firer should keep both eyes open and his head, arms, and rifle should move as one unit.
86. Automatic Fire a. Automatic fire is the firing of two or more consecutive rounds without releasing the trigger. Bursts of three rounds are usually fired to insure minimum dispersion. When does the automatic rifleman employ his weapon in the automatic role, and when does he employ it in the semiautomatic role? To answer this question, the automatic rifleman must first understand the nature of automatic fire, its advantages and limitations, and the contrasts between automatic and semiautomatic fire. Only through such an understanding will the automatic rifleman know how and when to most effectively employ his weapon in any given situation.
H) Semiautomatic fire. Semiautomatic fire is employed where the range to the target is in excess of 460 meters* and in any situation where a high degree of accuracy is required to hit a small point target, e.g., bunker apertures, windows, and single enemy personnel.
(2) Automatic fire• Automatic fire is employed :
fa) When engaging enemy formations at ranges to 460 meters.
(b) When engaging large point targets such as crew-served weapon emplacements, unarmored vehicles, and openings in buildings to ranges of 460 meters.
(c) To attain fire superiority when warranted by the tactical situation.
b. As pointed out in the explanation of the importance of position stability, automatic fire will not be as accurate. per round fired, as sem¡automatic fire. This decreased accuracy must lie compensated for by the delivery of a heavy volume of fire. A heavy volume of fire is attained in machinegun fire where ammunition is belt-fed and requires no interruption of fire for reloading. However, with a magazine-fed automatic rifle the volume of fire is governed by the automatic rifleman's ability to load and change magazines. Sustained automatic rifle fire is limited bv the 20-round magazine. To attain a heavy volume of fire, the automatic rifleman must be able to change the magazine in 4 to 5 seconds. This level of proficiency can only be attained through thorough and intensive training in the fundamentals of automatic fi re.
( 1 ) The automatic rifleman is taught that the time loss in changing magazines can be minimized by placing his magazines in the ammunition pouches in the proper manner. The following procedures should be followed:
(a) Two magazines are placed in each ammunition pouch with the open end down, the long edge to the rear (fig 106). This provides a systematic method for removing the magazines.
(b) To remove a magazine from the pouch, grasp the magazine with the thumb between the magazine and body with the remaining fingers on the outside of the magazine. While withdrawing the magazine from the pouch, extend the arm to the front, rotate the hand and magazine 180° causing the open end of the magazine to face the feed-well.
(c) Right-handed firers are taught always to use the magazines on the right side of the body first. Empty magazines must be saved for reloading and later use. A field expedient method of carrying expended magazines is to attach an empty sandbag to the load-bearing equipment.
Figure I Off. Proper method of carrying mMgizines.
b. Magazine Changing.
(II Right-side load. To load a magazine from the right side, the automatic rifleman uses his right hand. He removes the empty magazine from the weapon, secures and loads the next magazine into the weapon, and then releases the operating rod handle. The left hand should never be taken away from the weapon during the right-side load.
(2) Left-side load. To load a magazine from the left side, the automatic rifleman uses his left hand. He removes the empty magazine from the weapon, secures and loads the next magazine into the weapon, and then reaches up and over the receiver to release the operating rod handle. The right hand should never be taken away from the weapon during the left-side load.
88. Fire Distribution a. General. The automatic rifleman must be trained to deliver fire at targets which have one or more selected aiming points. When fire is delivered at one aiming point, it is called concentrated fire; when it is delivered at more than one aiming point, it is called distributed fire.
b. Concentrated Fire. Concentrated fire is fire directed at h specific point which requires a high degree of accuracy. Rifle marksmanship training has taught the soldier to think principally in terms of concentrated fire; he must now be taught to apply the integrated act of automatic rifle shooting to distribute, as well as to concentrate, his fire.
c. Distributed Fire. Distributed fire is fire in depth and width so that a target is effectively covered. The object of distributed fire is to place a heavy volume of fire between the known or suspected flanks of a target. The automatic rifleman must attempt to place fire within the area of such a target. It should be strongly emphasized that the inability to see enemy personnel or position ft should not be n reason lor not firing into an area if there is reason to suspect the presence of a covered or concealed target. Effective fire distribution is attained by correct application of the eight steady hold factors and correct body position. Body alinement and the position of the shoulders and right elbow become an area of major concern in distributing fire. Incorrect body alinement and the position of the shoulders and the right elbow will cause erratic dispersion of fire. Where only small adjustments to the lay of the weapon are required the automatic rifleman moves only his shoulders to the right or to the left. He must insure that the rifht elbow remains in place and that the shoulders remain parallel to the ground. If the lateral ad* justment required is enough to require a movement of the elbows, the automatic rifleman must re-lay his weapon by shifting his entire body so that the shoulders are level and correct body alinement b maintained. When delivering automatic distributed fire, the first round of each burst is aimed. The automatic rifleman selects successive aiming points across the target and fires back and forth across the target in three round bursts until either fire superiority has been gained or the target has been neutralised.
89. Conduct of Training a. Twenty-Five Motet Automatic Firing.
<11 Genera/. Initial live fire training is conducted on the standard 25-meter rsnge. The standard automatic fire tsrget (FSN 6920-457-93611 (fig 10?) is the only target required to conduct 2 5-meter preparatory marksmanship training. Twenty-five meter firing is designed to develop proficiency in each of the fundamentals of automatic rifle marksmanship, prior to engaging targets under simulated combat conditions on the standard automatic rifle range/field fire range modified for automatic fire. This practical exercise is not scored.
121 Conduct »/ fin. Twenty-five meter firing is conducted in three phases.
Figure 107. Standard 25-meter »utometic rifle target.
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