Target Painted White With Black Rectangle

FRONT SIGHT BLADE (PAINTED BLACK)

Target Box Exercise

REAR SIGHT (PAINTED BLACK)

EYE PIECE (PAINTED BLACK)

141 Second aiming exercise. To conduct this exercise, a rifle, a rifle rest, a target box, and a target disk are required for each assistant and firer team (fig 79 k Blank paper attached to the target box is used to record aiming points. A miniature 23-meter target is painted on the disk. A sn.all hole is made in the center of the disk so the assistant can insert the point of a pencil and mark the firer s point of aim. The exercise is conducted as follows: fa) The rear sight is set at 12 clicks of elevation and zero windage, and the rifle is then braced in the rest. The firer assumes a position beside the rifle so that his eye is as close as possible to the rear sight without disturbing the lay of the weapon. He places both elbows on the ground and rests his chin in the palm of his left hand. The assistant sits on the target box located 15 meters from the firer. This distance produces approximately the same front sight blade and aiming point relationship as exists during 25-meter firing. The assistant holds the target disk against the paper on the target box. The firer signals the assistant with his right hand to move the disk until the correct sight picture is obtained. He then clenches his fist and gives the command, MARK. The assistant records the sight picture by marking the paper with his pencil through the hole in the disk. This procedure is repeated until three sight pictures, called a shot group, have been recorded. The firer must keep his eye in the same position with relation to the rear sight aperture each time he obtains a sight picture.

The Target Box Exercise Checks The
Figure 79. Hi fie rest, target box, and disk exercise.

CAUTION: To obtain valid results, there must lie no movement of the rifle, the rifle rest, or the target box until all three sight pictures have been recorded. If any of these items are accidentally moved before three sight pictures have been recorded, the firer must repeat the entire exercise.

lb) An assistant instructor critiques the shot group, using (he shot group ma lysis card 1 fig 741 as a guide. A satisfactory shot group can be covered by the unsharpened end of a pencil, d. Conduct of Firing.

111 Clean and btschened Might9. A firer can experience difficulty in obtaining a proper sight picture because of shiny or dirty sights. A shiny front or rear sight will glare and partially blind the firer. Dirt can change the distinctive sight outline and cause errors in alinement. Thus, it is important in training and in combat to continually inspect rifle sights, cleaning and blackening them as necessary. During marksmanship training, materials for this purpose should be available on the range. In combat, the soldier can use a cleaning patch or handkerchief to clean the sights, and he can blacken them with an ordinary match flame.

121 Fire command».In order to simplify firing procedures, fire commands should be brief and standardized as much as possible from one exercise to the next. A sample fire command follows: FIRERS ASSUME THE PRONE POSITION. ASSISTANT, SECURE THREE ROUNDS OF AMMUNITION AND LOAD THESE INTO THE MAGAZINE. GIVE THIS MAGAZINE TO THE FIRER. THE FIRING LINE IS NO LONGER CLEAR. FIRER: LOCK; WITH ONE THREE-ROUND MAGAZINE, LOAD. YOU WILL FIRE AT THE (NUMBER OR LOCATION) TARGET. COMMENCE FIRING WHEN READY. CEASE FIRING. CLEAR ALL WEAPONS. CLEAR ON THE RIGHT? CLEAR ON THE LEFT? THE FIRING LINE IS CLEAR. FIRERS MOVE DOWN RANGE AND CHECK YOUR TARGETS.

Scctton II. MI4 AND M14A1 SIGHTS

46. General

Following fundamentals training, the soldier must zero his weapon. In order to accomplish this, the soldier must first learn the operation of the rear sight, the use of the elevation and windage rule, and how to compute sight changes.

47, Sights a. The rear sight (fig. 801 of the M14 and M14AI rifle has an elevation knob and a windage knob which are used to move the rear sight aperture up or down and right or left respectively. Changing the position of the rear sight aperture causes a corresponding change in the location of the strike of the bullet. The elevation knob affects the vertical location of the strike of the bullet, while the windage knob affects the horizontal location. Both knobs make an audible click when they are turned. Each click changes the strike of the bullet a specific distance, depending on the range to the target. The elevation knob is adjustable from 0 to 72 clicks.

The rear sight aperture can be adjusted from 0 to 16 clicks to the right or left of the center index line by rotating the windage knob.

b. During initial training in marksmanship fundamentals, the soldier should conduct all firing exercises with the rear sight of his service rifle set at 12 clicks of elevation and zero windage. This setting should not be changed until the soldier is able to fire satisfactory shot groups. Any sight changes made before the soldier obtains his bat-tlesight zero should be supervised. The reason for this is two-fold: first, untrained firers will tend to focus their attention on manipulating the sight rather than learning to properly apply marksmanship fundamentals. Second, during fundamentals training, the precise location of shot groups on the target is unimportant since it is the size of the shot groups and not the location that governs the proficiency of the firer.

Target Shot Group
Fieure 80. Hear tight. MI4 rifle.

48. Elevation and Windage Kule

The elevation and windage rule Mate« thai one click of elevation or windage will move (he strike of a bullet a specific distance at a specific range. At a range of 25 meters, one click of either elevation or windage on the sights of the M 1 4 / M 1 4 A I rifle<a I will move the strike of the bullet approximately .7 centimeters. To compute the distance that one click of elevation or windage will move the strike of a bullet et a given range, divide the range (expressed in meters! by 25 meters and multiply by .7 cm.

I) = K X .7 I) = Distance in centimeters 25M R = Range in meters

KX AMPLE: To compute the distance that one click of elevation or w indage will move the strike of the bullet at a range of 250 meters, simply divide 250m by 25m and multiply by .7 cm. I) = 250m X .7 = 10 X .7 = 7 cm 25m

49. Sighl Changes a. To make sight changes, the iirer first locates the center of his shot group and then determines the distance between it and the desired location. The distance in elevation is determined vertically while distance in windage is determined horizontally. These distances are converted to clicks by using the elevation and windage rule. As a general rule, bold adjustments will prove more advantageous to the firer. For example, if the firer cannot decide whether to move two or three clicks, he should normally make the adjustment requiring the greater number of clicks.

b. To raise the strike of the bullet, the firer must increase the number of clicks of elevation. Con» verse ly, he decreases the elevation to lower the strike of the bullet on the target. Right windage moves the strike of the bullet to the right, and left windage moves it to the left.

50. Progress Check a. Purpose. Prior to obtaining his battleSight wro, each soldier should fire an exercise to measure his fundamental shooting skill. This exercise is called a progress check. The results of the progress check will enable instructors to identify specific deficiencies and to take advantage of scheduling procedures in the subsequent battlesight aero period.

b. Conduct of Exercuo. To conduct a progress check, each aoldier must fire three, three-round shot groups from the prone» kneeling, kneeling supported, and foxhole supported position. Assistant instructors check the results after each shot group b fired, using a shot group template. This template is made of transparent plastic with two circles imprinted on it. One circle is 3 centimeters in diameter and the other 5 centimeters. In checking shot groups fired from the two supported positions, kneeling supported and foxhole supported, the three rounds must lie on or within the 3-centimeter circle to be considered satisfactory. The 5-centimeter circle is used to check shot groups fired from the unsupported positions. Again, the three rounds must lie on or within the 5-centimeter circle to be considered satisfactory. Soldiers should be given an opportunity to refire from those positions found to be unsatisfactory if there is sufficient time and ammunition available. New recruits must mceive a formal progress check as an integral part of their markmanship training. The shot group template should be continually used to check and critique shot groups during all 25-meter firing.

SKtton III. BATTLESIGHT ZERO

51. Principles of Zeroing a. In order to understand the principles of aeroing, the soldier should have a basic knowledge of. ballistics, specifically, the relationship between the path of the bullet in flight and the line of sight. In flight, a bullet does not follow a straight line but travels in a curve or arc. This curved flight path of the bullet is called a trajectory. The maximum height of a bullet's trajectory, in relation to the line of sight, depends on the range to the target. The greater the distance a bullet travels before impact, the higher it must travel in its trajectory. On the other hand, the line of sight is a straight line distance through the rear sight aperture, across the front sight blade to the point of aim.

b. After the bullet leaves the rifle, it is initially moving in an upward path. The bullet will intersect and begin to travel above the line of sight a short distance from the muzzle. As the bullet travels farther, it begins to drop and will eventually again intersect the line of sight. The range at which this intersection occurs is the zero for that sight setting.

c. Current doctrine of the United States Army prescribes a battle-sight zero at 250 meters. That is, the rear sight of a rifle should be so adjusted that the trajectory of the bullet and the line of sight intersect at a range of 250 meters. To phrase it another way, a soldier firing a rifle properly zeroed for a range of 250 meters should hit his point of aim at that range.

d. One method of determining the 250-meter battlesight zero would be to fire at a 250-meter aiming point, making the necessary adjust menu to place the center of the shot group on the point of aim. However, such a method would waste training time while firer» moved between the firing line and die targets to check the location of shot groups.

e. A more suitable method of determining the 250-meter battlesight zero can be accomplished at a range of 25 meters (fig. 81K This method is based on die principle that bullets of the same type and caliber fired at the same range have the same trajectory. That is, if several bullets were fired from the same rifle and all hit the same point of aim at 250 meters, the trajectories of all these bulleta would be the same. Therefore, when each of these bullets reaches a distance of 25 meters from the muzzle of the rifle, it is the same height above the firer's line of sight. Thus, by placing an aiming point at a range of 25 meters, the firer has only to adjust his shot group the prescribed height above the point of aim to obtain a zero for 250 meters.

52. Battlesight Zero Target

The standard 25-meter target It used for the battlesight zero exercise {fig 82). In order to use the elevation and windage rule effectively, the firer mnst know the dimensions of the target. The vertical and horizontal lines printed on the target form 1.4-oenrimetar squares. Aa Indicated la paragraph 48» one dick of elevation or windage will move tbe strike of the bullet .7 centimeter at a range of 25 meters. Thus, two clicks of elevation or windage will move the strike of tfce bullet on s square on the 25-raeter target.

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    How to blacken a rifle sight?
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