Firing Elbow

M16a1 Marksmanship
NON Fl RING ELBOW

Firing elbow placement The location of the firing elbow is important in providing balance. The exact location, however, depends on the firing/fighting position used — for example, kneeling, prone, or standing. Placement should allow shoulders to remain level.

Nonfiling elbow. The nonfiring elbow is positioned firmly under the rifle to allow for a comfortable and stable position. When the soldier engages a wide sector of fire, moving targets, and targets at various elevations, his nonfiring elbow should remain free from support.

Stock weld. The stock weld is taught as an integral part of various positions. Two key factors emphasized are that the stock weld should provide for a natural line of sight through the center of the rear sight aperture to the front sight post and to the target. The firer's neck should be relaxed, allowing his cheek to fall naturally onto the stock. Through dry-fire training, the soldier is encouraged to practice this position until he assumes the same stock weld each time he assumes a given position. This provides consistency in aiming, which is the purpose of obtaining a correct stock weld. Proper eye relief is obtained when a soldier establishes a good stock weld. There is normally a small change in eye relief each time he assumes a different firing position. Soldiers should begin by trying to touch his nose close to the charging handle when assuming a firing position.

Support. If artificial support (sandbags, logs, stumps) is available, it should be used to steady the position and to support the rifle. If it is not available, then the bones, not the muscles, in the firer's upper body must support the rifle.

Muscle relaxation. If support is properly used, the soldier should be able to relax most of his muscles. Using artificial support or bones in the upper body as support allows him to relax and settle into position. Using muscles to support the rifle can cause it to move.

Natural point of aim. When the soldier first assumes his firing position, he orients his rifle in the general direction of his target. Then he adjusts his body to bring the rifle and sights exactly in line with the desired aiming point. When using proper support and consistent stock weld, the soldier should have his rifle and sights aligned naturally on the target. When this correct body-rifle-target alignment is achieved, the front sight post must be held on target, using muscular support and effort. As the rifle fires, the muscles tend to relax, causing the front sight to move away from the target toward the natural point of aim. Adjusting this point to the desired point of aim eliminates this movement. When multiple target exposures are expected (or a sector of fire must be covered), the soldier should adjust his natural point of aim to the center of the expected target exposure area (or center of sector).

Aiming. Focusing on the front sight post is a vital skill the firer must acquire during practice. Having mastered the task of holding the rifle steady, the soldier must align the rifle with the target in exactly the same way for each firing. The firer is the final judge as to where his eye is focused. The instructor/trainer emphasizes this point by having the firer focus on the target and then focus back on the front sight post. He checks the position of the firing eye to ensure it is in line with the rear sight aperture. He uses the M16 sighting device to see what the firer sees through the sights. (See Appendix C.)

Rifle sight alignment Alignment of the rifle with the target is critical. It involves placing the tip of the front sight post in the center of the rear sight aperture. (Figure 3-4.) Any alignment error between the front and rear sights repeats itself for every 1/2 meter the bullet travels. For example, at the 25-meter line, any error in rifle alignment is multiplied 50 times. If the rifle is misaligned by 1/10 inch, it causes a target at 300 meters to be missed by 5 feet.

Figure 3-4. Correct sight alignment.

Figure 3-4. Correct sight alignment.

Meter Zero Target Silhouette

Focus of the eye. A proper firing position places the eye directly on li ne with the center of the rear sight. When the eye is focused on the front sight post, the natural ability of the eye to center objects in a circle and to seek the point of greatest light (centerof the aperture) aid in providing correct sight alignment. For the average soldier firing at combat-type targets, the natural ability of the eye can accurately align the sights. Therefore, the firer can place the tip of the front sight post on the aiming point, but the eye must be focused on the tip of the front sight post. This causes the target to appear blurry, while the front sight post is seen clearly. Two reasons for focusing on the tip of the front sight post are:

• Only a minor aiming error should occur since the error reflects only as much as the soldier fails to determine the target center. A greater aiming error can result if the front sight post is blurry due to focusing on the target or other objects.

• Focusing on the tip of the front sight post aids the firer in maintaining proper sight alignment (Figure 3-4).

Sight picture. Once the soldier can correctly align his sights, he can obtain a sight picture. A correct sight picture has the target, front sight post, and rear sight aligned. The sight picture includes two basic elements: sight alignment and placement of the aiming point.

Placement of the aiming point varies, depending on the engagement range. For example, Figure 3-5 shows a silhouette at 250 meters —the aiming point is the center of mass, and the sights are in perfect alignment; this is a correct sight picture.

Figure 3-5. Correct sight picture.

Figure 3-5. Correct sight picture.

Aperture Sight Alignment

A technique to obtain a good sight picture is the side aiming technique (Figure 3-6). It involves positioning the front sight post to the side of the target in line with the vertical center of mass, keeping the sights aligned. The front sight post is moved horizontally until the target is directly centered on the front sight post.

A technique to obtain a good sight picture is the side aiming technique (Figure 3-6). It involves positioning the front sight post to the side of the target in line with the vertical center of mass, keeping the sights aligned. The front sight post is moved horizontally until the target is directly centered on the front sight post.

Four Fundamentals Firing Soldier

Front sight. The front sight post is vital to proper firing and should be replaced when damaged. Two techniques that can be used are the carbide lamp and the burning plastic spoon. The post should be blackened anytime it is shiny since precise focusing on the tip of the front sight post cannot be done otherwise.

Aiming practice. Aiming practice is conducted before firing live rounds. During day firing, the soldier should practice sight alignment and placement of the aiming point. This can be done by using training aids such as the M15A1 aiming card and the Riddle sighting device. (See Appendix C)

Breath Control. As the firer's skills improve and as timed or multiple targets are presented, he must learn to hold his breath at any part of the breathing cycle. Two types of breath control techniques are practiced during dry fire.

• The first is the technique used during zeroing (and when time is available to fire a shot) (Figure 3-7A. There is a moment of natural respiratory pause while breathing when most of the air has been exhaled from the lungs and before inhaling. Breathing should stop after most of the air has been exhaled during the normal breathing cycle. The shot must be fired before the soldier feels any discomfort.

• The second breath control technique is employed during rapid fire (short-exposure targets) (Figure 3-7B). Using this technique, the soldier holds his breath when he is about to squeeze the trigger.

The coach/trainer ensures that the firer uses two breathing techniques and understands them by instructing him to exaggerate his breathing. Also, the firer must be aware of the rifle's movement (while sighted on a target) as a result of breathing.

Figure 3-7. Breath control.

A. Breath control when zeroing, single target.

A. Breath control when zeroing, single target.

Army Marksman Targets
+1 0

Post a comment