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Sound Potential targets indicated by sounds (footsteps, coughing, or equipment noises) provide only a direction and general location. It is difficult to pin-point a specific target's location only by sound. However, the fact that an observer was alerted by a sound greatly increases the chances that he will locate the target through subsequent target indicators.

Movement. The problem in locating moving targets depends mainly on the speed of movement. Slow, deliberate movements are much harder to notice than those that are quick and jerky. The techniques previously outlined are the best procedures for locating moving targets.

Identifiable shapes. The lack of or poor use of camouflage and concealment are indicators that reveal most of the targets on the battlefield. Light reflecting from shiny surfaces or a contrast that presents a clearly defined outline are indicators easily noticed by an alert observer. For instruction, camouflage indicators are divided into three groups:

• Shine. Items such as belt buckles or other metal objects reflect light and act as a beacon to the wearer's position; therefore, such objects should be camouflaged. This is true during the day or night.

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• Outlines. The human body and mosi types of nulitary equipment are outlines known to all soldiers. The reliability of this indicator depends upon the visibility and experience of the observer. On a clear day, most soldiers can identify the enemy or equipment if there is a distinct outline. During poor visibility, it is not only harder to see outlines, but inexperienced troops often mistake stumps and rocks for enemy soldiers. Therefore, the soldier should learn the terrain during good visibility.

• Contrasts. If a soldier wearing a dark uniform moves in front of a snowbank, the contrast between the white snow and dark uniform makes him clearly visible. However, if he wears a white (or light-colored) uniform, he is harder to see. Contrast with the background is one of the hardest target indicators to avoid. During operations in which the soldier is moving, he is usually exposed to many types of color backgrounds. No camouflage uniform exists that can blend into all backgrounds. Therefore, a moving soldier must always be aware of the surrounding terrain and vegetation. A parapet of freshly dug earth around a fighting position is noticeable. Even if camouflaged, the position can still be located due to the materials used for concealing. Camouflage materials are usually cut from vegetation close by but eventually wilt and change color. An observer, seeing an area that has been stripped of natural growth, can assume there are close camouflaged emplacements.

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