Immediate Action. Under normal conditions a soldier should be able to clear a stoppage in three to five seconds. Under full MOPP, however, this may take as long as ten seconds to successfully complete. Dry-fire practice under these conditions is necessary to reduce time and streamline actions. Hood/mask and gloves must be worn. Care must be taken not to snag or damage the gloves or dislodge the hood/mask during movements. Applying immediate action to a variety of stoppages during dry fire must be practiced using dummy or blank ammunition until such actions can be performed by instinct.
Target Detection. Techniques and principles outlined in Chapter 3 remain valid for target detection while in MOPP, but considerations must be made for limiting factors imposed by MOPP equipment.
Vision is limited to what can be seen through the mask lenses/faceplate. Peripheral vision is severely restricted. The lenses/faceplate may be scratched or partly fogged, thus further restricting vision. Soldiers requiring corrective lenses must be issued insert lenses before training.
Scanning movement may be restricted by the hood/mask. Any of these factors could adversely affect the soldier's ability to quickly and accurately detect targets. Additional skill practice should be conducted.
Steady position. Due to the added bulk of the overgarments, firing positions may need adjustment for stability and comfort. Dry and live firing while standing, crouching, or squatting may be necessary to reduce body contact with contaminated ground or foliage. A consistent spot/stock weld is difficult to maintain due to the shape of the protective masks. This requires the firer to hold his head in an awkward position to place the eye behind the sight.
Aiming. The wearing of a protective mask may force firers to rotate (cant) the rifle a certain amount to see through the rear aperture. The weapon should be rotated the least amount to properly see through and line up the sights, as previously discussed in Chapter 3. The center tip of the front sight post should be placed on the ideal aiming point. This ideal aiming procedure (Figure 4-7, page 4-16) should be the initial procedure taught and practiced. If this cannot be achieved, a canted sight picture may be practiced.
Breath control Breathing is restricted and more difficult while wearing the protective mask. Physical exertion can produce labored breathing and make settling down into a normal breath control routine much more difficult. More physical effort is needed to move around when encumbered by MOPP equipment, which can increase the breath rate. All of these factors make holding and controlling the breath to produce a well-aimed shot more energy- and time-consuming. Emphasis must be placed on rapid target engagement during the limited amount of time a firer can control his breath.
Trigger squeeze. Grasping the pistol grip and squeezing the trigger with the index finger are altered when the firer is wearing MOPP gloves. The action of the trigger finger is restricted, and the fit of the glove may require the release of the swing-down trigger guard. Because the trigger feels different, control differs from that used in bare-handed firing. This difference cannot be accurately predicted. Dry-fire training
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