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flash), or reflected moonlight/starlight are the main means of target location. Sounds may also be indicators of target areas. Because the other techniques of detection (movement, contrast) are less apparent at night, light and sound detection must be taught, trained, and reviewed repeatedly in practice exercises. Exercises should also emphasize shortened scanning ranges, night vision adaptation, and use of off-center vision. Target detection exercises should be integrated into all collective training tasks.

NOTE: Binoculars are often overlooked as night vision aids. Because they amplify the available light, binoculars or spolting/rifle scopes can provide the firer with another means to locate targets during limited visibility. Also, the use of MILES equipment is effective for use in engaging detected targets.

Marksmanship Fundamentals. The four marksmanship fundamentals apply to night firing. Some modifications are needed depending on the conditions. The firer must still place effective fire on the targets or target areas that have been detected.

Steady position. When the firer is firing unassisted, changes in his head position/stock weld will be necessary, especial when using weapon-target alignment techniques. When using rifle-mounted night vision devices, head position/stock weld must be changed to bring the firing eye in line with the device. Also, such mounted devices alter the rifle's weight and center of gravity, forcing a shift in placement of the support (nonfiring arm or sandbags). Repeated dry-fire practice, followed by live-fire training, is necessary to learn and refine these modifications and still achieve the most steady position.

Aiming. Modifications to the aiming process vary from very little (when using LLLSSs) to extensive (when using modified quick-fire techniques). When firing unassisted, the firer's off-center vision is used instead of pinpoint focus. When using a mounted night vision device, the firer's conventional iron sights are not used. The soldier uses the necessary aiming process to properly use the device.

Breathing. Weapon movement caused by breathing becomes more apparent when using night vision devices that magnify the field of view. This fundamental is not greatly affected by night fire conditions.

Trigger squeeze. This important fundamental does not change during night fire. The objective is to not disrupt alignment of the weapon with the target.

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