## Range Determination

Range determination is the process of finding the distance between two points â€”one point is usually the observer's own position and the other a target or prominent feature. Range determination is an important skill in completing several types of missions since it affects combat marksmanship proficiency. It is needed in reporting information, and in adjusting artillery and mortar fires.

Many techniques are used to determine range: measuring distances on maps, pacing the distance between two points, using an optical range finder. However, the soldier does not usually have a map, and he rarely has access to an optical range finder. Pacing the distance between two points is one technique a soldier can use, as long as the enemy is not near. A sector sketch is a rough schematic map of an observer's area of responsibility (Figure B-2). It shows the range and direction from the soldier's position to recognizable objects, terrain features, avenues of approach, and possible enemy positions. The soldier paces the distance between his position and reference points to reduce range errors. By referring to the sector sketch, the soldier can quickly find the range to a target appearing near a reference point.

The 100-Meter Unit-of-Measure Technique. To use this technique, the soldier must visualize a distance of 100 meters on the ground. For ranges up to 500 meters, he determines the number of 100-meter increments between the two points (Figure B-3). Beyond 500 meters, the soldier must be select a point halfway to the target, determine the number of 100-meter increments to the halfway point, and then double it to find the range to the target (Figure B-4). During training exercises, the soldier must aware of the effect that sloping ground has on the appearance of a 100-meter increment. Ground that slopes upward gives the illusion of greater distance and soldiers have a tendency to overestimate a 100-meter increment. Conversely, ground that slopes downward gives the illusion of a shorter distance; therefore, the soldier tends to underestimate.

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