The eight steps of functioning (feeding, chambering, locking, firing, unlocking, extracting, ejecting, and cocking) begin after the loaded magazine has been inserted into the weapon.
STEP 1: Feeding (Figure 2-4). As the bolt carrier group moves rearward, it engages the buffer assembly and compresses the action spring into the lower receiver extension. When the bolt carrier group clears the top of the magazine, the expansion of the magazine spring forces the follower and a new round up into the path of the forward movement of the bolt. The expansion of the action spring sends the buffer assembly and bolt carrier group forward with enough force to strip a new round from the magazine.
STEP 2: Chambering (Figure 2-5). As the bolt carrier group continues to move forward, the face of the bolt thrusts the new round into the chamber. At the same time, the extractor claw grips the rim of the cartridge, and the ejector is compressed.
STEP 3: Locking (Figure 2-6). As the bolt carrier group moves forward, the bolt is kept in its most forward position by the bolt cam pin riding in the guide channel in the upper receiver. Just before the bolt locking lugs make contact with the barrel extension, the bolt cam pin emerges from the guide channel. The pressure exerted by the contact of the bolt locking lugs and barrel extension causes the bolt cam pin to move along the cam track (located in the bolt carrier) in a counterclockwise direction, rotating the bolt locking lugs in line behind the barrel extension locking lugs. The rifle is then ready to fire.
STEP 4: Firing (Figure 2-7). With a round in the chamber, the hammer cocked, and the selector on SEMI, the firer squeezes the trigger. The trigger rotates on the trigger pin, depressing the nose of the trigger and disengaging the notch on the bottom on the hammer. The hammer spring drives the hammer forward. The hammer strikes the head of the firing pin, driving the firing pin through the bolt into the primer of the round.
When the primer is struck by the firing pin, it ignites and causes the powder in the cartridge to ignite. The gas generated by the rapid burning of the powder forces the projectile from the cartridge and propels it through the barrel. After the projectile has passed the gas port (located on the upper surface of the barrel under the front sight)
and before it leaves the barrel, some gas enters the gas port and moves into the gas tube. The gas tube directs the gas into the bolt carrier key and then into the cylinder between the bolt and bolt carrier, causing the carrier to move rearward.
Figure 2-7. Firing
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