Warning

A FAILURE TO EXTRACT IS CONSIDERED TO BE AN EXTREMELY SERIOUS MALFUNCTION, REQUIRING THE USE OF TOOLS TO CLEAR- A LIVE ROUND COULD BE LEFT IN THE CHAMBER AND BE ACCIDENTALLY DISCHARGED. IF A SECOND LIVE ROUND IS FED INTO THE PRIMER OF THE CHAMBERED LIVE ROUND, THE RIFLE COULD EXPLODE AND CAUSE PERSONAL INJURY. THIS MALFUNCTION MUST BE PROPERLY IDENTIFIED AND REPORTED. FAILURES TO EJECT SHOULD NOT BE REPORTED AS EXTRACTION FAILURES.

Probable cause. Short recoil cycles and fouled or corroded rifle chambers are the most common causes of failures to extract. A damaged extractor or weak/broken extractor spring can also cause this malfunction.

Corrective action. The severity of a failure to extract determines the corrective action procedures. If the bolt has moved rearward far enough so that it strips a live round from the magazine in its forward motion, the bolt and carrier must be locked to the rear.

The magazine and all loose rounds must be removed before clearing the stoppage. Usually, tapping the butt of the rifle on a hard surface causes the cartridge to fall out of the chamber. However, if the cartridge case is ruptured, it can be seized. When this occurs, a cleaning rod can be inserted into the bore from the muzzle end. The cartridge case can be forced from the chamber by tapping the cleaning rod against the inside base of the fired cartridge. When cleaning and inspecting the mechanism and chamber reveal no defects but failures to extract persist, the extractor and extractor spring should be replaced. If the chamber surface is damaged, the entire barrel must be replaced.

Failure to Eject. A failure to eject a cartridge is an element in the cycle of functioning of the rifle, regardless of the mode of fire. A malfunction occurs when the cartridge is not ejected through the ejection port and either remains partly in the chamber or becomes jammed in the upper receiver as the bolt closes. When the firer initially clears the rifle, the cartridge could strike an inside surface of the receiver and bounce back into the path of the bolt.

Probable cause. Ejection failures are hard to diagnose but are often related to a weak or damaged extractor spring and/or ejector spring. Failures to eject can also be caused by a buildup of carbon or fouling on the ejector spring or extractor, or from short recoil. Short recoil is usually due to a buildup of fouling in the carrier mechanism or gas tube, which could result in many failures to include a failure to eject. Resistance caused by a carbon-coated or corroded chamber can impede the extraction, and then the ejection of a cartridge.

Corrective action. While retraction of the charging handle usually frees the cartridge and permits removal, the charging handle must not be released until the position of the next live round is determined. If another live round has been sufficiently stripped from the magazine or remains in the chamber, then the magazine and all live rounds could also require removal before the charging handle can be released. If several malfunctions occur and are not corrected by cleaning and lubricating, the ejector spring, extractor spring, and extractor should be replaced.

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