Info

Air-Cocleri Berthier Machine Gun Tested by the United States Army, 1917. Army in May 1917 the gun did not. meet requirements. On 29 June of the same year, the Marine Corps after a very comprehensive test, reported it suitable for its use. The Ordnance Board tested the weapon again shortly after the Marine Corps made its report and this later Army board concurred with the Marines, who had again conducted trials that resulted in another favorable report. The Armv then ordered, on 2 October 1917,...

A G

Mass production 21, 23 Massuger, Louis 562 Mauser, Andreas 472 Mauser, Paul 172, 473 Mauser A.G. (See Waffenfabrik Mauser A.C.) Mauser automatic cannon (See MG-151 aircraft cannon, 20 mm Flak 38 antiaircraft cannon, 20 mm) Mauser machine guns (See MG-34 light machine gun MG-81 aircraft machine gun) Maxim, Hiram Stevens Activities in electrical engineering 127-128 Article published in Engineering . 110-141 Demonstrations of weapon 131, Departure for Europe 127 Designs flying machine 261 Designs...

Job

Recoil-operated magazine firearm 488,409 20 Dec 1892 (Assigned to the White Magazine Rifle Co.) White, Joseph C. Wakefield, Mass. Automatic gun 1,907,163 2 May 1933 (Assigned to White Automatic Gun Corp.) Automatic gun 1,907,164 2 May 1933 (Assigned to White Automatic Gun Corp.) Whiting, William John Handsworiii, England Automatic revolver firearm 688,216 2 Dec 1901 Automatic revolver firearm 688.217 3 Dec 1901 Automatic firearm 803,948 7 Nov 1905 Automatic...

Appendix B

Tabulated Characteristics of Machine Guns and Aircraft Cannon This tabic has been compiled as a handy reference to the world's effort in the field of automatic machine guns and cannon. Due to the vast number of models that have been developed from a basic mechanism, no attempt was made to list them all here. To avoid repetition, a representative weapon was chosen that best illustrated the inventor's (or manufacturer's) family of machine guns. (In the foregoing text all models are covered.)...

Automatic Aircraft Cannon

After reviewing the material on the more recent large bore automatic-firing mechanisms, it seems quite obvious that future armament of aircraft for years to come is to be found in this type of weapon. While quite ironically the bulk of our source material is in this particular field, due to security reasons the amount Lhat can be openly discussed has become less and less. Only features that have been well known over a period of years are mentioned. All other models having peculiarities of...

Bang Aircraft Machine

Glock Exploded View

The Danish Rifle Syndicate of Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1929 formed a company to produce a caliber .276 flexible aircraft machine gun to be known as the Bang. The weapon was the invention of Soren Hansen Bang, an employee of the Syndicate. It used a method of capping the muzzle with a cone-shaped device. This svstem was by no means new, having been patented by Sir Hiram Maxim and used successfully by John M. Browning on his fust experimental model in 1880. Its main drawback was that it demanded...

Beckersemagoerlikon Automatic Aircraft Cannons

With the latest and most improved weapons when the need should arise. Semag, the name being coined from its initials, manufactured the Becker gun and sold it as an aircraft weapon. In 1921 it introduced its own version, which was a modified Becker. 1 he bore was 20 millimeters, but the barrel and cartridges were longer, giving a higher muzzle velocity. This weapon was called the Semag infantry gun. By early 1023 the company had built and fired a new 25-mm model, using the same action. The Semag...

Birkigt Type Mm Hispanosuiza Cannon

Storage in custody of the Inspector of Naval Aircraft at Long Island City, N. Y., until they were turned in as not being acceptable for installation. The increasing Army Supply Program during 1940 and early 1941 resulted in an over-all requirement of 44,747 20-mm guns. This staggering number made it obvious that other facilities than the Bendix subsidiary commence production. On 17 April 1941 a contract was awarded to the Oldsmobilc Division, General Motors Corp., Lansing, Mich., for 9,000...

Browning Automatic Machine Guns

Their removal is not often necessary, might he replaced by pins with locking devices. All pins could be brought to one or two standard sizes without affecting weight or strength materially. In addition to the 6-millimeter gun, the Colt Company has also perfected guns of he same type of other calibers for handling the following cartridges United States Army inch .30 Remington millimeter* f> Mauser millimeters 7.65 Mexican millimeters 6.5 Austrian millimeters 7 The Navy's order of 50 Colt...

Ygi

Rcccivcr body., which contained the slidcway for operating parts, was stamped out of sheet metal. The fixed barrel was permanently fastened both fore and aft by having the receiver swaged cir- cumfcrentially in a recess around each end and then further secured by the loc king pin. A projection on the left side opened to permit insertion of a fresh loaded magazine when all cartridges were expended from the previous one. When not in use, it was closed by two metal spring-loaded Haps which flew...

Cannon

Ehrhardt, Solothurn, and Flak 3C) Cannon At the lime of the signing of the Armistice on II November 1918, there were in German arms plants a number of experimental weapons desperately being worked upon in order to stave off disaster. Many of them were being fabricated under the highest priority. Among these weapons was a pilot model automatic cannon, constructed at the Rhcinmctall plant at Dusscklorf, and devised by the director of the firm. Ilein- rich Khrhardt. who was world famous for his...

Cj

Have the heavy loaded magazine too far off the center line of action. This would result in poor dispersion during automatic fire. The gun's main impoiiance lay in its use as a MhJM Bipw _ ' iWi .W Cl,-'' - y> S r - ij** * .i 'jyr.i- i rJ > fv MhJM Bipw _ ' iWi .W Cl,-'' - y> S r - ij** * .i 'jyr.i- i rJ > fv German Troops Training with the MG-13.

Conclusion

It was indeed an eventful day when man stepped from the path of his upward climb for the purpose of starting war. While his travel along the road to progress has been notable, he has found occasion to pause more times than civilization would care to admit, in order to seize, save, or sanctify those things of his neighbor which he deemed worthy of the effort. The improvements in methods of transportation, communication, medicine, and divers other things are of such vast proportions that they...

Contents

PART I FORERUNNERS OF THE MACHINE GUN 1. Weapon History Prior to Primitive The First Projcctile Medieval Instruments of 2. Firearm Development to Percussion Origins of Gunpowder F.arlv Mull barrel Firearms Improvements in Ignition Beginnings of Revolving and Volley-Fire Application of the Detonating Principle to Pioneer American 3. Background of Machine Gun First Models of Percussion Multifiring Development of Cartridges Ripley Refinements in American Gunsmithing Industrial By-Products of the...

D O

Gages its recess in the holt, and then places the loaded feed into position on top of the receiver. After turning the safety catch forward to the Fire position, the trigger is pressed back. I'he breechbloc k is then released from the sear and travels forward under the influence of the barrel spring. The horns on the breechblock head come into contact with the base of the first round in the magazine, forcing it forward and downward towards the chamber. The mouth of the chamber is shaped to guide...

Davis Nonrecoiling

When representatives of the great powers affixed their signatures to the treaty in St. Peicrs-Durg, Russia, in 1868, their main purpose was to eliminate the possibility of using explosive and purposely deformed bullets on personnel in war-rare. In order to insure that no such projectiles be employed against the individual soldier, they collectively agreed to set 150 grams as the legal minimum weight for a projectile and its explosive content. This simple specification made it impossible for any...

Early Aircraft Developments

The development of the automatic machine gun was so far ahead of the rest of the mechanical world that shortly after the turn of the twentieth century, as if by a predetermined agreement, progress in this field of endeavor temporarily ceased. It seemed to be waiting for a companion achievement, the airplane, to join in a combination that would result in man's most devastating instrument of war. Of all the classes of society, perhaps the highly practical gun designer heaped the most ridicule on...

Fg Machine

German military and industrial leaders, he- lieving they had taken (are of infantry armament needs, next turned their attention to a machine gun on which consideration had to he given to balance and lightness of weight. This weapon, manufactured by Heinrich Kricghoff Walfenfabrik. Suhl, Saxony, was intended for air-borne soldiers, a mode of warfare so far tin-tried. With the invasion of Crete by air the Germans introduced the new paratroop machine gun. called the FG-42. It was promptly confused...

Firearm Development To Percussion Ignition

Strange as it may seem, the Battle of Crecy, which showed the longbow at its best, was also the scene of an incident that sounded the death knell, not only of the bow, but of all merely mechanical means of missile propulsion. This battle saw the first recorded use of artillery in an engagement between major armies and heralded explosives as a means of missile propulsion. However, the justified praise of the longbow was so great at this time that were it not for the meticulous writings of a few...

First Trials of the Maxim

When the light version was finally satisfactory to Maxim, he displayed it at Hatton Gardens. Ilere Mr. Pratt, of the Pratt and Whitney firm, viewed the weapon. One of the finest machinists in the world, this old friend of Maxim s voiced his amazement, If any one had told me that it would be possible to make a gun . . . do all these things in the tenth part of a second, I would not have believed it. . But now 1 have seen it with my own eyes. Maxim was wined and dined by London society and met...

Flak Cannon

Shortly after the introduction of these single shot 20-mm semiautomatic rifles into the sen ice, Rheinmetall engineers again turned their attention to the development of an automatic 37-mm cannon, using a centrally locked bolt thai was a byproduct of their semiautomatic cannon development. Locking was done in the simplest man no imaginable. The cocking handle that protruded from the bolt head rode in and was guided b) a long slot cut in the side of the receiver. As the bolt head approached...

Hotchkiss Automatic Machine Guns

P> > - a a j * 'v. < * * * ifS ** v ' 'A* y v v V 2* < rx . * v . A. r t 1 agree that the heroic defense made that day by the Fourth (Gouraud's) Army against the last desperate German drive, marked the end of the offensive power of the enemy, and permitted Foch. 3 days later, to launch the general offensive that continued without respite for nearly 1 months and only ended with final victory for the Allies. Ilie brilliant tactical use of artillery and ma- chine guns bv General Gouraud...

Hotchkiss Machine

Benjamin Berkley Hotchkiss, born in Water-town, Conn., in 182f> , served his apprenticeship and became a master mechanic at the Hartford plant of the Colt's Patent Fire Arms Co. He is credited with helping lo design and perfect various models of the world-famous Colt revolver. As early as 185(> he built a riHed field piece that was purchased by the Mexican Government. In I860 he submitted to the United States Government an improved system of rifling and a new kind of percussion fu .e for...

Hotchkiss Machine Gun

Captain Odkolek appeared at this time with his prototype machine gun undei conditions that an inventor too often fails to encounter. He had unconsciously picked a moment when there was a demand for just the type of weapon he had brought along to show the business executives Ben t and Merci saw certain basic principles in the model which could be employed in build ing a reliable and efficient machine gun. As lor Odkolek'.s weapon itself, they thought little of it and firing tests at the plant...

1

i'is t s I HI Km t l l i lillti 4 > 7 ' * V ' .' ' Bcsa Machine Gun, Mk I, 15 mm, as Viewed irom Below. This weapon was so close in principles of operation as to he nearly identical with the early gas-operated Ztt guns but the few new features added from time to time were in them selves radical enough to warrant the presentation of a cycle of operations for comparative purposes. To fire the 15-mtn Besa Mk I or the ZB-60 Model 1938, as the Czech company version was marked, the operator shoves...

Jyv

Scotti 20 mm Automatic Cannon on Antiaircrait Mount. This double duty was attractive to the procurement authorities of second-rate powers. The cannon's main claim to fame is that it was copied basically by another company in designing what resulted in the first-line automatic aircraft cannon of two major powers. During the latter days of World War II the Isotla-Fraschini Co. manufactured the weapon in quantity, although too late to be of use to Italy, particularly since it had had so little...

If

Spring to the left until the hammers are clear. When the spring carries the trigger comb to its original position with the teeth in the jaws of the hammers, the firing pin springs are compressed and the carrier block brought to the left. As the handle is pushed forward to battery position, the carrier block is moved to the right, placing loaded rounds in position for chambering. Then the breech piece with its plungers is carried forward, chambering the cartridges in their respective barrels....

Ill

It was, however, relegated to fortifications and naval use. There is no record that the army ever officiallv used it as a first-line machine gun. But an Austro-Hungarian naval detachment, equipped with the Skoda, was sent to the defense of the Legation at Pekin during the Boxer rebellion in 1900. Its use in this engagement was very limited. The military authorities of Austria-Hungary looked upon the weapon as suitable only for the defense of fixed positions and recommended that it be...

Index

Bofors-Gullsp ng 610 Aberdeen Proving Ground. Md 480, 481, 5119 514, 571, 574. 578. 580, 58 , 583, 586 AC Spark Plug Div., General Motors Corp. 339 Accles, James G 57, 60. 63 Aedes feed 60 Adams. Capt. F R. S 579 Ader, Clement 260, 261, 264 Aerodrome 261 Ager. Wilson 37 Ager gun 37-40, 48 Agnelli. Giovanni 374 Aircraft, Early 259-274 Aircraft, Naval 269-271 Aircraft armament, Early 268 278 Aircraft Armament Board 325-326 Aircraft Armament Unit 588 Aircraft cannon (See Individual names of...

J

Each believed a man does best that for which he has the most natural aptitude, and wisely decided at the very first to separate their business duties. In complete agreement, they decided that John M. should devote his entire time to the origination of new weapons and the improvement of previous designs, since he had already shown his ability along this line. On the other hand, Matthew, having exhibited unusual talent in marketing products and in handling patents, contracts and investments,...

Lahti Suomi Ls Machine

The Yah ion Kivaaritehdas (State Rifle Factory) at Jyaskyla, Finland, produced in 1920 a light machine gun that operated on the short recoil system. It was the invention of Finland's most outstanding automatic weapon designer. Aimo Johannes 1 .ahti, who for a number of years was chief of this government arsenal. Lahti originated weapons for his country's use in all sizes from rifle caliber to camion and, unlike most inventors, did not exploit a single basic system of operation but employed...

Lewis Aircraft Machine

A week after the world was saddened by news ol Wilbur Wright's death from typhoid fever on Memorial Day, 1012, an event concerning aviation took place on 7 June 1912, that would in time directly affect mankind far more than did the pioneer flight at Kitty Hawk. For on this day, Capt. Charles DeForcst Chandler success fully fired a full automatic weapon from an aircraft in flight for the first time in aviation history. Ihe experiment was carried out unofficially. Lt. Col. Isaac N. Lewis, Coast...

M K

The first weapon to receive the new marking-was a .W-mm automatic aircraft cannon which turned out to be merely a scalcd-up version of the early 20-inm antitank gun, the Mark S-18 1000. The weapon was designated the MK-101 Aircraft 30-mm automatic cannon. It had a very long chamber and used an extremely high-velocity cartridge for an automatic aircraft cannon. The locking system is the locking ring principle, so successfully exploited by RheinmetaH's Solothurn plant in the production of many...

Machine Guns Used By The Confederacy

The barrel is fastened by an eye and wedge key to a heavy cast iron horizontal plate. This folate extends under part, of the barrel, is circular in rear of the barrel and has an extension to the rear the rear part contains gearing which is operated by a hand lever. This gearing rotates a horizontal ring contained in the circular portion of the horizontal plate. There are 18 copper lined muzzle loading chambers on the outside circumfercnce of the ring, and 18 corresponding percussion cap nipples...

Maxim Machine Guns

For many years nothing surpassed the American gunmaker's ingenuity. Even refinement of existing firing mechanisms was considered a task challenging the utmost skill of any designer. However, the world did not reckon with a young man from America, Hiram Stevens Maxim, who was lor the first time to combine the words automatic and machine gun. He accomplished this by using the power of the recoil forces generated from the explosion of the powder charge in the cartridge to produce the entire cycle...

Mcnt

'The parties representing the gun may have the privilege of declining to subject it to any portions of the test, which may be proposed to which they may not wish lo have it subjected at the time, but in respecting their wishes in this regard the report of the test will, of course, state the facts. Til the course of the complete test, the gun will have the kind of field test which they desire, and copies of all reports in regard to the test will be furnished the company. ' It is also...

Mg

Villar-Perosa Aircraft Machine 12. S. I. A. Aircraft Machine 13. Cast Aircraft Machine 14. Darnc Aircraft Machine Gun 15. Beardniore-Farqiihar Aircraft Machine Gun 16. Brixia Machine 17. Mendoza Light Machine Gun 18. Chatellcrault Machine Gun II). Madsen Aircraft Machine Gun The Aircraft Version of the Models and Users of the Madsen 20. B. S. A. Aircraft Machine Gun 21. Breda Machine Gun 22. Furrer Machine Gun 23. ZB Machine Guns ZB Model 1926 The Br en Japanese Models of the ZB-50 Machine...

Mitrailleuse Type Weapons

The successful employment by the Confederates of light cannon firing grapeshot caused a wave of inventions to correct the greatest weakness in this method of using artillery. The cannon were smooth bore, and, like fowling pieces, had limited accuracy. The gunner had little or no control over the placement of the individual grapeshot. The inventors reasoned that if there were 50 balls in a charge or canister, and 30 were wasted in the scatter effect, a concentrated accurate fire, using an equal...

Mm

FicA fRevclli 25-mm Aircrait Cannon. ing it until its base strikes the ejector and is pivoted out through the ejection slot in the bottom of the receiver. The filial recoil movement of the boh fully compresses the driving spring. The hitting of the rear buffer absorbs the surplus energy and sends the operating parts into counterrecoil. The feed rib on top of the bolt strips a round out of the maga ine and starts it into the chamber. When the striker makes contact with the nose of the sear, it...

Models of Browning Recoil Operated Machine Guns

The following tabulation lists the various models and bores of Browning recoil-operated machine guns that have been produced for use by the nations of the wrorld Browning ground . Browning ground . Browning training Browning tank . . . Browning training Browning training Browning tank . . . Browning cavalry . . Browning gen. purp. Browning gen. purp. Browning gen. purp. Browning tank Browning ground . . Springfield ground . Rock Island ground Colt ground U * V I I I I

Modifications and Attempts at Standardization

By the time production really began with all companies, the United States Navy was the only branch of the service actually placing Ilispano-Suiza cannon in planes in great numbers and demanding that aircraft designs of the future in elude 20-mm in lieu of lighter machine gun armament. Unfortunately, the gun, which was being delivered in prodigious numbers, was not proving itself totally reliable in America. On the other hand, promising reports were coming in daily from the British, who had used...

Nambu Automatic Weapons

Commodate it when the bolt is all the way in The Model 99 Narnhu 7.7-mm light machine gun is undoubtedly the most familiar Japanese automatic weapon. The main refinement was in the machining which permitted better head spacing and consequently did away with the necessity of oiling the ammunition. A new spring-loaded clip magazine was used that gave the gun the appearance of the well known Bren. Four different types of the Model 99 were tested before the weapon was fully standardized and adopted...

O

When the cartridge is fired, the whole inside portion travels backward with the breechblock still firmly locked to the barrel until the outside crank comes in contact with the resistance roller. The crank then begins to turn downward, carrying with it the connecting rod, the other end of which draws the breechblock away from the bar- The weapon has a sliding T slot that also recedes, with the live cartridge drawn from the belt and the empty case from the barrel. It is guided and supported by...

O O

Boh is (omposed of a non-rotating cocking piece and a rotating bolt head. The locking lugs are at the l ront of the bolt head and engage with corresponding resisting shoulders located in the receiver directly behind the chamber. When the lugs have entered the bod v. the arms engage its face. The bolt arm, continuing its forward move-men . is turned by the cam slot until the lugs en- gage the resisting shoulders and the bolt is securely locked in battery. The extractor, in its final movement...

Oerlikon Aircraft Cannon

The financial failure of Semag resulted in its being taken over by the Werkzeug Maschinen fabrik Oerlikon. a machine-tool factory located in Oerlikon, Switzerland, a manufacturing village near Zurich. German capital and management dominated this company too. An ex-German army officer, Emil Buhrle, was the manager of the plant. Its modern, one-story saw-tooth type buildings were set up primarily for the production of automatic arms. The plant has often been confused with an older Swiss firm,...

Office Of The Treasurer Of The United States

C.t 3 rrriifu thai Ieaao N Lewie Colonel USA Rtd ( By letter dated June 12 1917 -Chf of Pub Moneys Dvsn) has this day DEPOSITED TO THE CREDIT OK THE UNITED STATES Ten thousand eight hundred eighty-nine 17 100 Dollars, on account o f Donation to the Government for which J have signed duplicate receipts. TftEAJVftCRfJ Ornee Form 5259. * fc k Af -d CAUUZE. E< J. 10.000 Mtt-F.C 10-16. JL M Hipd Deputy Alltitcni Ttt Wtt United Staff I Deputy Alltitcni Ttt Wtt United Staff I...

Oo

The striker again Hies up to continue the cycle. This was the most unusual employment of the short-recoil principle known to date. Although the bolt unlocked in scarcely a half-inch rear travel, the barrel extension continued to recoil to a point slightly exceeding the combined over all length of the cartridge case and projectile. On some models a device was fastened to the barrel jacket at the muzzle end to trap the blast after the bullet cleared the bore. This was done

Other Maxim Weapons

The success of the riilc-caliber gun led the British Admiralty to ask Maxim to design a special-objectives weapon for use against torpedo boats, specifying that the projectile must be large enough, to penetrate light armor, and the rate of fire as high as thought practical. Lord Wolseley asked Maxim also to produce, if possible, a projectile that could be used effectively against armor at a great range when used as solid shot, but at the gunner's will the same projectile could be converted to...

Other Sources

Of the sources for this publication, perhaps the most valuable were reports and documents from the files of the I .'nited Stales Government. Such material was obtained, among others, from oflices of the Department, of Defense, the National Archives. the Library of Congress, the Smithsonian Institute, and the United States Patent Cilice. The documents include intelligence reports from military and naval attach s, proving ground reports, annual reports of the Army Ordnance Department and the...

Part Vautomatic Aircraft Cannon

Vickers Aircraft Cannon (C.O.W. Aircraft Cannon) 3. Revelli Aircraft 4. Puteaux 37-nnn Aircraft Cannon 5. Becker Semag Oerlikon Automatic Aircraft Cannons Semag Aircraft Cannon Oerlikon Aircraft Cannon Gazda Aircraft Cannon Polsten Cannon Cycle of Conclusion 6. Szakats 20-min Aircraft 7. Baldwin Aircraft Cannon (37 mm)

Pioneer American Gunsmiths

Eli Whitney, inventor of the cotton gin. had already given the armed services a very simple lesson in mass production. lie delivered to the army many kegs full of triggers, hammers, barrels, ramrods, stocks, etc. Upon arrival before a group of astonished officials, he used a dozen common mechanics to assemble the component parts. Then he took the finished pieces to the range and personally proofed each weapon. He showed, once and for all, if each part was made to specification, assembly could...

Primitive Beginnings

The club was so universally employed by primitive man that, although originally intended as a tool for providing food and collecting wives, it can be considered the ancestor of all weapons of war. It has been a companion arm of man, in one form or another, since the beginning of time. Today, as a reminder of its once devastating force, it is used as a symbol representing the highest authority, i.e., the field marshal's baton and the emperor's scepter a tribute to the man who best wickls the...

Q

Mitting the fingers to be locked around both semicircular projections so thai it may be drawn back against the Lcnsion of the firing-pin spring. 1 his allows the gunner to cock the piece independent ol the recoil action. 1 here is also a lever device, located directlv above the thumb trigger piece, which permits both single shot and automatic firing at (lie will oi the gunner. When single shots are desired, the selector switch is moved to Lento'' (slow) on the left side ol the safety switch,...

R

Components of the Cal. .90 Automatic Aircraft Cannon, Model T2. rod protrudes from the front end. and. when filled with oil. the buffer requires a void only large enough to allow for piston-rod displacement. The helical driving spring is mounted forward of the receiver over the barrel and inside the bolt sleeve. The hand-charging device consists of a screw with a loop on one end, a serrated nut and a ratchet wrench. The loop on the end of the screw fits the top of the trunnion while the body of...

Series

During the thirties when the European powers became unusually interested in development of automatic cannon for plane armament, the Ordnance Department, United States Army, also started work at its manufacturing arsenal on several different weapons of this type. Because of the peculiar caliber chosen, they were called by the personnel who worked on them the 9 lOths, or caliber .90, guns. 1 he bore diameter of this series was in reality .900 of an inch. The first design, known as the Tl, was a...

Skoda Machine Gun

Drawn to the rear until stop > ed by the bolt striking against the cylinder and then let go. The trigger sear then releases the tail of the tumbler, freeing the nose from the notch of the hammer. Fhe striker spring throws the hammer against the firing pin and discharges the piece. If the breech is not completely closed, the tail of the hammer will strike against the support. The firing pin being thus protected, premature discharge cannot take place. When the piece is discharged, the recoil...

Sow

First Trials of Browning Cal. .50 Machine Gun in Colt's Pasture. Fred Moore Firing tlis Weapon and John M. Browning Standi. operating pans were interchangeable to a limited degree, this did not hold true lor most of the costly and vital components. This condition existed until Dr. S. ( . Green (colonel during World War 11), who is now chief of ihe Engineering Section, Small Arms Branch, Industrial Division of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance, Department of the Army, conceived and put into...

Sr

Aircraft Machine Gun, Cal. .50 forward or normal position. The bolt, its sleeve, and striker all continue rearwards. The slow unlocking action permits initial extraction and when the bolt is tiearing the end of its backward stroke, the front face of the end of the slot in the upper side strikes the protruding end of an ejector piece. The latter is slidably located in an inclined slot in the upper resistance lug in the holt head and ejects the spent cartridge case in a downward...

T and Other Modified Hispano Suiza Cannon

Since the protection of her carriers from heavy bom bet s called for a fast-firing automatic cannon, the United States Navy logically took the initiative in the development of the Hispano-Suiza. As early as December 1942 the Navy's Bureau of Ordnance requested that the Army, which had the responsibility of production, study the possibility of shortening the barrel and making other refinements. On 18 January 1943 Aberdeen Proving Ground began a series of tests to show the effect on muzzle flash,...

The Brcn

In 1932 Lhc British Army, in its quest for a light machine gun to replace the Lewis, became very much interested in its military attaches' re ports on the simply constructed reliable machine gun known on the Continent as the ZB Model 1926. A series of trials were immediately begun in which by way of competition some fine and efficient weapons were entered. Among them were the wrell-known Madsen and Vickers-Ber-thier. The latter seemed certain to be adopted, but after an exhaustive test the...

The Colt Model Machine

Browning made a discovery which, in due time, affected all the military world. Like most great events its place of origin was unimpressive. He was function firing one ot his latest rifles in the salt marshes near Ogden, Utah, when he noticed something countless other men had seen before, but had not thought worth remembering. Everv time Browning fired, the bulrushes parted from the blast for quite a distance from the muzzle. To others this phenomenon meant nothing. But to Brow...

The First Automatic Machine

When his home office sent Maxim to London to reorganize the British subsidiary, the Maxim-Weston Co., he noticed that everv inventor in Europe, regardless of qualifications, was attempting to perfect some sorr of machine gun. While in Vienna on business, it was suggested to him that he also try to originate a machine gun. The person advising this was an American friend, also in Europe on electrical business. Disgusted with the delay and red tape encountered in this field, he stated to Maxim,...

The Lewis Gun in World War I

A Serbian student named Princip, armed with an American-designed auto-loading pistol, on 28 June 1914, assassinated Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria to start what might well be called the First Great Machine Gun War. The automat ic weapon had heretofore been employed only in minor conflicts, which had served to show its potentialities. In the 1914-18 war it was estimated that 92 percent of all casualties were inflicted with this highly lethal type of weapon. After the declaration of war,...

The Machine Gun

ine, it pushes the indexed round ahead of it into the guide way of the chamber, t he firing pin assembly at this point lias been traveling with the boll as a unit, but at a distance of 1 inches out of battery a spring-loaded sear located on the back of the breech loc k lever engages the front face of the striker housing, holding it back while the bolt continues to go on At this point, if the trigger button is still depressed, the breech lock in reaching its recess pivots down in front,...

The Model Gatling

As bad features appeared during tests, Gatling observed them and a short time later made corrections. In the autumn of 1864 lie made his first attempt to prepare changes that would correct the parts causing malfunctions, so common to all prototype or first model weapons. With the completion of what he thought was the solution, Gatling ended his partnership with McWhinnv, Rindgc & Co., of Cincinnati, and contracted with the Cooper Fire Arms Manufacturing Co. of Frankford (Philadelphia), Pa.,...

The T u F Machine

The Germans, being the first to armor their own planes, knew that by doing so their existing rifle-caliber machine guns likewise would be made obsolete for aircraft use. They proceeded with typical thoroughness to prepare for the day when their airmen would have to contend with armor on enemy planes. This vital need for a machine gun firing a bullet large enough and with enough velocity to penetrate heavy armor was brought to their attention in a more forceful way by the British use in 1917 of...

Use of the Lewis Gun by the Navy

One of the most peculiar things about the Lewis controversy is that the Navy did not con- cur in the belief that the weapon was unreliable. The Navy, in its effort to supply the Marine Corps with an adequate light machine gun. had the Marines test the weapon. Complete satisfac tion with its performance was expressed. In September 1917, an officer from the Aviation Ordnance Section, Lieutenant Commander Stone, who had been sent abroad to collect data and specimens of foreign aircraft ordnance,...

V

York City were installed by Maxim's company in the Equitable Insurance Co. Building at 120 Broadwav. in its dav considered to be the most modern in the world. When electric lighting first came into use in America, everyone wanted to examine the ma- chines which produced the current. Many of these sightseers had highpriccd watches which became magnetized and stopped. Maxim developed a simple machine that could demagnetize a watch in a matter of minutes. At first he charged a dollar each for...

Villarperosa Aircraft Machine

On 8 April I ill 4 Bethel Abiel Re elli, then a major in the Italian Army and residing in Turin, applied for patents on a machine gun designer primarily for aircraft use. This very interesting weapon was the forerunner of a number of aviation weapons invented by this officer. Rcvelli's claim to fame is originality of design, as is evidenced by his other machine guns the novel features of which have since been copied and adapted for present day weapons. Revel li s attempt became internationally...

W

Model 1914, Cal. .303, Twin-Mounted, French be remembered that it represented a handmade product in its earliest prototype stage. Constant experimentation was daily being carried on in an attempt to perfect the mechanism. Construction of the gas-operated gun required the attachment of the barrel and receiver so that the orifices in the barrel are at an exact place underneath it. The weapon could then be mass produced and the components quickly assembled. This...

Washington

1 Referring to your letter without date, received April 16, 1914 (0.0, 37688 3034), requesting information as to the make of gun in this or foreign countries possessing the greatest rapidity of fire, 1 a m instructed 'by the Chief of Ordnance to inform you that no gun has ever exceeded the rate of fire of the Catling gun, motor driven It is understood that with this gun a rate of fire of 3,000 rounds per minute from its ten barrels is possible. 2. The greatest rate of fire from a single barrel...

ZB Machine

The ZB Co., after a number of years' experience with its light gas-operated machine gun that enjoyed a world-wide reputation for reliability and clean c ut design, turned its attention in 1932 to the promotion of a machine gun that operated by recoil forces. In the creation of this new weapon the company advertised that it made efficient use of all the knowledge and methods which modern technical science puts at the disposal of the successful designer. Painstaking study and research were...

Mauser Automatic Cannon

Loaded rurved magazine, and the spent brass is ejected through an opening in the right side of the receiver. The gun is percussion fired and a selector lever on the side allowed single-shot fire if desired. The weapon weighs 123 pounds, has a muzzle velocity of 2,720 feet per second and a rate of fire of 420 rounds per minute. Incorporated in this design is a Belleville washer-type rear buffer. The Flak 38 was popular from its introduction and eventually superseded the standard 20-mm...

Puteaux Mm Aircraft Cannon

Although the British Roval Air- Force was the first to fire a cannon successfully from an airplane, ii remained for the artillery-minded French to achieve the major development on cannon for aircraft during World War I. These very realistic people approached the problem in the most practical way imaginable. The wheels of a reliable field piece were simply removed and it was bolted in the forward part of the cockpit of the latest Voisin plane. The aircraft was also armored, a fact which, in...

The B A R Since World War I

Following World War I, the exclusive rights to manufacture the B. A. R. (Browning Automatic Rifle) reverted to the Colt's Co. The Belgian Fabrique Nationale d*Amies de Guerre at Ilerstal, Belgium, was licensed in 1920 to manufacture and distribute the weapon in Europe, under the name Herstal light machine gun. along with many other Browning-designed guns. In 1922 the United States Army brought out the Cavalry model 1922 machine t ide. This version of the B. A. R. had a heavy ribbed barrel, a bi...

Beginnings ol Revolving and Volley Fire Guns

Flintlock Revolving Rifle

During the slow match and flintlock era , there were many peculiar designs in weapom including many proposed multifiring device*, all in an attempt to solve the three major profc lems that confronted the inventor planning a gun. They were First, an adequate chamber and tube to house the powder charge and direct < the missile second, some method of igniting the propellant at the instant the gunner brought the piece to bear on the target and third, pro vision of ways and means of firing...

Email Auto Extraetor

Since the munitions companies pointed out hat the faint strikes were due to lack of impact i the primer resulting from error in the gun, md not as a result of defective materials or workmanship, it was decided to conduct another test 011 an extensive scale at Aberdeen. Ninety of the 20-mm guns, Ml and AN-M2, selected from every facility producing them, were expended in this test with all types of ammunition, both from accepted and rejected lots. A complete record was made of every malfunction...

Baldwin Aircraft Cannon Mm

During World War I, an American engineer, A. S. Baldwin, was authorized by our Government to work on the Puteaux aircraft cannon sent to this country from France for the purpose of adapting them for use on American planes. From the wealth of experience gained during the early days of development and the wide reputation he enjoyed as a thorough ordnance man, he was the natural choice of the Army to design an aircraft cannon for use on a flexible mount or a motor cannon to be fired through the...

The Aircraft Armament Board Report

Browning Caliber .80, for Aircraft Use (1) This Browning machine gun belongs to that class of automatic, weapons known as short recoil operated, air cooled and belt fed. It is chambered for the standard caliber .30 U. S. ammunition. The force of recoil is utilized to perform the mechanical operations of feeding, load ing, extracting, cocking and ejecting the empty cartridge cases through the bottom of the receiver while the buffer and driving spring returns the counter recoiling mechanism to...

Hdck

Rhcinmctall 30 mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, MK-10I. Stance's that permits an unusually short recoil stroke before picking up the incoming round. A safety lock can be so positioned as to make it impossible to depress the solenoid actuator. To fire the MK 101, a loaded drum is attached in its fastening latches on top of the receiver. Air from a cylinder is admitted to the charging mechanism through an electric solenoid valve. This allows compressed air to enter the piston housiftg against the...

Gast Machine

This piece is set in a recess corresponding to the aft end ol the upper portion of the piston. When the latter moves forward under the impulse of the driving spring, the sliding movement of the recoiling mechanism in that direction is slopped at the end of its slideway. The piston with attached firing pin continues on its course. The projection comes in contact with the corresponding cam on the breechblock which is opposite it. The breechblock is thus jacked up at the rear and held in this...

Knorrbremse Machine

Swedish military authorities, upon becoming interested in a strangely designed machine gun, invented by Hans Lauf of Gharlottenburg, Germany, had their government small arms factory manufacture the weapon for testing purposes in 1933. Lauf, in presenting it, described it as a gas-pressure-opera ted machine gun and made many claims for the unusual contrivance. The inventor was well known in the gun world and at the time was a director of the Knorr-Bremse Manufacturing Go. of Lich ten berg,...

BesaZB Machine Guns

The British modifications on the 1926-30 models that became known as the Bren led the ZB firm to bring out an identical gun in every respect except for the caliber. This was changed from the British .303 to the Czech rifle cartridge, 7.92 millimeter. The greatly improved design was called the ZB Model 1934 and the highly efficient weapon was bought or copied by countries all over the world. In 1937 V. llolek, the official in charge of the firm's experimental weapon design, introduced and...

Zb-50 Machine

Weapon Only Gun

ZB Machine Gun, Model 50-1932, 7.92 mm. The Only Weapon Designed by ZB Based on the Short Reco l Principle. during the movement of recoil and at the instant of unlocking exerted its full force on the holt, speeding it rearward. These features were invented and patented by Anton Marck, one of the noted gun designers in the employ of the ZB plant. The accelerator was in appearance very similar to the well-known Browning type. This model unlike its magazine-fed predecessors employed metal push-out...

Purvis Henry Rifled Barrel Company

The first working model of a fully automatic machine gun. He set up a small workshop at 57 Hatton Gardens, corner o Clcrkcnwell Road. Bringing with him the milling machine used at Bankside, he purchased additional American lathes, planers, drill presses, and other tools necessary for the work. He did not attempt to make the barrel for his machine gun, but purchased suitable ones from the London office of the Henry Rifle Barrel Co. These barrels, used in Maxim's first experiments, were the...

Uwi

Nordenfelt Machine Gun, Cah .43, Five-Barrel Model. Mounted in Top ot a Fighting Ship to Sweep the Docks of the Enemy. to pass into the trigger comb. With this device the gun could never he full cocked, as the firing springs were not compressed when the action block moved for ward. The stop, as the name implies. was for drill purposes only it allowed the gunner to train gun crews using live ammunition with absolute safety. The .Nordenfelt multibarrel guns as a whole were clumsy contraptions...

Lewis Machine Gun Aircraft

Machine Guns Weapon

Lewis Aircraft Machine Gun, Model 1914, Cal as 305 rounds, which made the gun too clumsy and breech heavy to be handled without tripod. The standard Lewis drum holds 47 rounds in two circular rows and is fastened horizontally by a clip to a top post located to the rear in line with the chamber. During operation the drum is rotated counterclockwise by a ratchet pawl working off the reciprocating piston body. It can be exc hanged in a few seconds, in fact so fast that only a slight pause in a...

Models of Maxim Guns

At the conclusion of the discussion of Maxim-type weapons in this publication, a tabulation is given, for ready reference, of the various Maxim systems and models used by the nations of the world Holland Model 1918 7.92 mm Germany Model 1899 . Germany Model 1901 . Germany Model 1908 . Germany Mod. 08 13 . Germanv Mod. '08 18 . Germany Model 1914 . Germany Model '14 17 Germany Model 1918 . Germany (circa 1902) . United States Model 1904 . United States Model 1915 . United States Model 1918 ....

Taylor Machine

Because of inertia and lack of encouragement, there was little incentive actually to produce a weapon capable of standing the rigorous tests demanded by the proving grounds. Of the more than 80 patents issued in the United States on machine guns between 4 November 1862 and 2G June 1883, only one other was completed sufficiently to justify trial. This weapon was the Taylor machine gun. The inventor, James Patton Taylor of Carter County, Tenn., made a gun very similar in appearance to the Wilder....

Mathew Sandefur Browning

Would meet he demands of the critical public. The successful partnership between John Moses and Matthew Sandefur Browning resulted from the death of iheir father and the added responsibility of providing for the family as well as from their inherited love for line guns and pride in their ability to produce them. These basic demands and the unlimited resourcefulness which characterized the lives of the two young men were the deciding factors that lifted the J. M. 8c M. S. Browning Co. of Ogden,...

Tabulation of Hotchkiss Machine Guns

The following tabulation is intended as a ready reference of the various Hotchkiss models used by the nations of the world Model 1895 8 mm Lehel Model 1896 7 mm Mauser Model 1897 8 mm Lehel Model 1900 8 mm Lehel Model 1914 8 mm Lehel Model 1896 7 mm Mauser Model 1896 7 mm Mauser Model 1896 7 mm Mauser Model 1907 7 mm Mauser Model 1914 7 mm Mauser Model 1896 7 mm Mauser Model 1914 8 mm Lehel Model 1906-1912 7.65 mm Model 1898 6.5 mm Krag Model 1898T 7.9 mm Jung TL Model 1900 6.5 mm Mauser Model...

MK Cannon

While the MK-101 was used by the German Luftwaffe mostly on the Russian front in the Heinkel 129, a heavily armored plane espec ially designed for ground attack, this type ol installation was also employed for tank-destroying purposes. And while it was designed for specific work and its over-all use was limited, it certainly tailed attention to the need for a 30-mm aircraft gun of this type with more fite power. It was soon followed by another Rheinmetall development, the MK-10.-L I bis 30-mm...

Ufz

Floor Bolted Autobody Frame Machine

Drawing of Furrer Machine Gun Action. Furre Machine 3m, Mcdei 1925, 7.5 mm. Lett Side. firing pin to fly fonvard under tension of its spring and strike the primer of the cartridge. This in turn fires the charge. For the first frac-tion of an inch of recoil the barrel is rigidlv con-nected with the barrel extension and bolt. During this time it slides backwards under action of recoil in the guides cut in the stationary receiver. The breech-bolt frame contains the boh which is also moving...

Browning Aircraft Machine Guns

The shoulder at the back end of the extension is hooked over tlie noli li at the bottom of the sear under pressure of the scat spring. During the final lot ward motion of the bolt the tip of the cocking level enieis the V slot of the top plate bracket. This action swings the bottom of the lever out 1 the path ol the firing pin extension, allowing space loi the pin to snap forward to lire the cartridge. When the countcrrccoiling portion is one-sixteenth ol lt m inch from battery, the gun is...

Myy

Abn Machine Gun Repeating Weapons

On 25 September 1933, the commanding olficer in reporting the results summed up the entire proceedings with the statement that while the weapon did function reliably, there was nothing unusual or outstanding enough to warrant replacing similar weapons we already have It was not considered an improvement on cannon then under design in American arsenals. The German high command thought quite highly of the weapon as an antiaircraft and tank gun and used thousands...

Browning Aircraft Cannon

Not satisfied with the results oi tests on the Poole Engineering Co.s Baldwin cannon, the Chief of Ordnance, United States Army, with the consent ol Mr. Baldwin and the Colt's Patent Fire Arms Co., consulLecl John M. Browning. This recognized genius of automatic weapons, who had been connected with Colt's for years, was asked to c heck visuallv the Baldwin i nn and make any suggestions that might increase the reliability of the weapon's action. On 29 November 1920, accompanied by Fred Moore,...

Anti Aircraft Artillery - Hotchkiss 13.2mm

Hotchkiss Machine Gun

Hotchkiss Aircraft Mochinc Gun, 13.2 mm. ir into use on any large scale in World War II, however, the country was overrun by the Ger- mans. The completers, already e uipped with aircraft armament they felt superior, made no attempt to utilize the 13.2-mm Hotchkiss machine gun. The basic principle being the same, the cycle of operation was naturally identical with that of other well-known Hotchkiss suns. On 28 April 1927 representatives of the Okura manufacturing concern in Japan began...

Principles Of Firearms By Charles Balleisen For Sale

Aircraft and Submarines. 1918. Ader, C. Aviation Militaire en l-'mncr. 1907. Aircraft in ITVn and Comment'. 1918. American Machinist. Artillery and Smalt-Arms Ammunition. 1942. Balleisen, Charles E. Principles of Firearms. 1915. Barnes, G. M. Weapons of World War II. 1917. Barrfs, Maurice. L'Aviation Pendant la Cue nr. 191G. Barileit, W. A. and Gaij.atin, 1 . B. Digest of Cartridges for Smalt Arms. 1 78. Black, Archibald. The Story of Plying. 1943. Blanch, H. J. A Century of duns....

Breda Mm Automatic Cannon

An early experienc e with aire rail cannon that ended in complete failure c aused the Italian Air Force to delay the development ol large-bore aviation weapons until it was altogether too late. And had the Breda 20-mm automatic gun not been designed originally for ground work against armored vehicles and later refined for aircraft use, there would have been no Breda aircraft cannon. In 1934 the Italian Armv introduced this weapon as an antitank gun and mounted it on a carriage similar to that...

Lbbe Mm Aircraft Cannon

Spiral Feeder Magazine

A. Liibbe, completed in 1929 a working model o an automatic gun that he considered the last word in aircraft armament. The weapon was also held to be highly desirable for use against armored vehicles. The gun in question was gas operated, had a bore diameter of 20 millimeters and had proved capable of firing at the rate of 3 gt 0 shots per minute. It was air cooled, magazine drum fed and its weight was only 107 pounds without feeder. These features are...