Perhaps there lias been more confusion surrounding Bergmann and Drcysc machine guns than for any other automatic weapons on record. Although these two are separate and distinct mechanisms, they arc here presented in the same chapter in an attempt to show clearly the differences between them.
The original gun was designed by Thcodor Bergmann of Gaggenau, Germany, and patented by him in 1900. The weapon was known as Model 1902 and was manufactured by Bergmann
Industrie Wcrke Abt. Waffenbau of Suhl. It was followed shortly by Model 1903, which differed from the first gun only in mounting and l.l 4 O
positioning of the feed box.
I he Bergmann is operated on the principle of short recoil, whereby all recoiling parts are securely hxked until the bullet has cleared the
bore. At the instant of unlocking the bolt is free to move to the rear, with all components working in a straight-line movement. Its simple construction makes it possible for the soldier in the field to disassemble and put the mechanism together again without the aid of tools. A vertical rising type lock is employed.
There are three principal parts to the gun: The receiver, which houses the barrel, barrel extension, and water jacket; the back plate, which contains the trigger mechanism and has fastened oo to it the spade grips; and the cover group, which encases the feed system and serves to lock the receiver to the cover.
To lire the weapon, the gunner places the first round in the cartridge belt under the belt-holding pawl until the round comes to rest against the cartridge stop. The bolt is then manually pulled back by a cocking handle. When it starts rearward, the claw of the feed slide begins to extract the loaded cartridge from the feed belt. This rearward action also pushes the striker down until it engages the sear that holds it in a o o cocked position. By the t ime the bolt has reached its full stroke, the feeder arm pivots over and places another round in the belt in place of the one just removed.
When the bolt is released, it is driven forward by the driving spring. In doing so. it picks tip the cartridge held bv the feed claw and chambers
it. At the same time the extractor lip is cammed over the rim of the cartridge case.
The weapon is now charged and ready to fire. The disc-shaped upper part of the trigger is
Theodor Bergmann Firinq the First Model Berqrnar.n Machino Sun.
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