The Brixia machine gun Model 1920 was devised by engineers of the Brescia Metallurgical Works, formerly the Tempini-Brescia Company, producers of 40,000 Fiat machine guns under Italian Government contract. From their background and a comparative study of all known machine gun mechanisms, they developed what was considered an improvement that "fulfilled in all respects the requirements suggested by experience of five years of war." In the weapon s design special attention was paid to: (1) Lightness, yet reliability of construction; (2) simplicity and solidity of component parts; (3) maximum ease in stripping and assembling; and (4) safety and ease oi operation.
One of the Brixia's most unusual features was the complete housing of the recoiling parts to prevent introduction of sand, dust or other foreign matter that would hinder operation. In the event of premature explosion of a cartridge the operator was fully shielded by the encased receiver. The method of feeding was also claimed by the producers to be much simpler than that of other machine guns. The gun was fed automatically by metallic loaders formed into rectangular boxes and attached to the receiver.
There was also incorporated in the weapon a means of regulating rate of fire while the gun was in action. Cooling was accomplished both by air and water. When water cooled, the conventional jacket was used, but in the airc raft model the barrel was cooled with radiation of the flanges that were an integral part of the barrel. For the water-cooled version the barrel was
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