Caliber Machine Guns

Gun, Machine, Caliber, .50, Model 1918. In April 1918 the AEF, in a cable to the War Department, expressed an urgent requirement for a high-powered, large-caliber machine gun and ammunition primarily for aircraft, with second priority for ground use. Available knowledge on the perform ance of a German 13.2-mm rimmed antitank cartridge, as well as information on the British development of a caliber .50 cartridge, led to a decision to develop a caliber .50 machinc gun and ammunition. Guns were designed under the supervision of John Browning at the Colt's Patent Fire Arms Manufacturing Co. (ground type) and at the

Winchester Repeating Arms Co. (aircraft type). (SeeThe Machine Gun, vol. 1, p. 335.)

Gun, Machine, Caliber, .50, Model 1921. This series of Browning guns were the first standard machine guns of caliber .50 to be adopted by the United States Government. There were variations for ground, air, and naval use. All this material is now obsolete.

Gun. Machine, Caliber .50 Tl. An early design in the program to modify the Browning caliber .50 gun to permit right and left-hand feed. Both air-and water-cooled guns were made.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T2. An intermediate stage in the development of the calibcr .50 M2 series.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T21. The Browning T21 was a collaborative effort by Colt and Springfield. This weapon underwent tests at Aberdeen Proving Ground from 1940 to 1942 with unfavorable results. The importance of that project was the establishment of a standard of performance for an acceptable high-speed gun. One breakage and five malfunctions were to be permitted in 5,000 rounds of firing at 1,200 rounds per minute.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T22. Early in 1942

the High Standard Manufacturing Co. designed a high cyclic rate caliber .50 Browning machine gun and made two models. These guns, designated T22, were submitted to the Aberdeen Proving Ground for test 10 August 1942. One gun was fired on that date, 554 rounds at a cyclic rate of 1,0GG rounds per minute, during which five stubbed rounds and two failures to feed occurred. Both guns were returned to High Standard for modification. A total of 10 guns were made.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T22EL This was a version of the T22 tested February 1943 which failed after firing 111 rounds. Failure was due to a broken sear.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T22E2. Tested in March 1943 this gun fired 3,700 rounds at cyclic rate of 1,219 rounds per minute. There were 43 malfunctions and 7 breakages.

Gun, Machine, Caliber 50 T22E3. The records do not indicate the history of the T22E3.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T22E4. Tested in August 1943 this gun fired 5,000 rounds at a cyclic rate of 1,100 rounds. There were 36 malfunctions and 2 breakages.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T22E5. Modification of T22 K4. Two guns were produced but when fired at Aberdeen their rate of fire was less than 1,000 rounds per minute.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T22E6. Tested late in 1943 the T22E6 first gave poor results. In the development of this gun an effort was made to hold to a minimum the changes from the standard Browning M2 gun. Because of defects inherent in the mcchanism it was decidcd that further development could not be expected to produce a completely acccptable weapon. Accordingly, further development. of the T22EG gun, as such, was not. undertaken by the Ordnance Department although certain features of the weapon were incorporated in the

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T25. In the development of the T25 bv Frieidairc no restriction was

* w placcd on the number of changes from the M2 gun, and the contractor was permitted to proceed by making all changes necessary to provide reliable functioning at a rate of fire of 1,200 rounds per minute. For example, the backplate buffer, barrel buffer, and receiver were redesigned. It was not until 10 March 1944 that the first T25 gun was submitted to Aberdeen Proving Ground for test. The gun gave a fair performance for 2,000 rounds, but from that point on excessive breakages and mal

functions occurred, and al 3,100 rounds the test was discontinued because of the breakage of the back pi ate buffer.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T25EI. Work was immediately started on a second gun, the T25E1, which was tested at Aberdeen 10 May 1944. This gun was completely unsatisfactory. Nine breakages and three malfunctions occurred in 770 rounds and the test was stopped. Satisfactory functioning had not been obtained with the T25 series guns but certain features of those guns were considered verv desirable.

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