Browning T25e1 Machine

guns, and to expedite procurement of this weapon, the Army Air Forces requested its standardization in April 1945. Ordnance Committee action was immediately taken to standardize the T25E3 gun as Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 M3, Aircraft, Basic.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T26. Modification of the Browning M2 gun produced and tested at Aberdeen. Included a short-round device submitted by the Army Air Force and the cover assembly of the T22E5. The extractor assembly was also taken from the T22 series as was the backplate assemblv. A muzzle booster with a 0.65-inch hole


Figure 1-3. Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T25E1.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T25E2. To permit further study of the causes of this unsatisfactory functioning, the T25E2 gun was made up by substituting the bolt, top cover and recoil booster of the T22E6 gun for corresponding components of the T25E1 gun. This gun was fired at Aberdeen Proving Ground in June 1944. Functioning continued unsatisfactorily, and the test was stopped at 1,800 rounds. A careful examination indicated that the nested helical springs in the backplatc buffer were breaking and causing extreme impact forces on the gun component.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T25E3. The first T25E3 gun was tested at Aberdeen 19 July 1944. The functioning of this gun was greatly improved over that of the T25E1, and the cyc lic rate averaged 1,250 rounds per minute. Eight malfunctions occurred, but for the first time in the development, it was possible to determine the specific cause of each malfunction. A projecting corner on the bolt was responsible for "shorting" rounds in the feed way and causing failures to feed; the remainder of the malfunctions were caused by fatigue of the sear spring. After the satisfactory tests of the T25E3

was used and a pneumatic buffer and a modified sidcplatc switch.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T27. This was a. Browning developed by High Standard to provide a kit of parts which could be used to convert the standard M2 gun to a high-speed weapon. The test was stopped before completion in January 1944.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T27EJ. Unsatisfactory- performance, since one of the two guns made blew up. Test discontinued about February 1945.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T27E2. The records do not indicate that the history of the T27E2 extends beyond the blueprint stage.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T27E3. Tested in March 1944; numerous malfunctions.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T27E4. Fired at a rate of 1.330 rounds per minute when tested in April 1944 but suffered numerous breakages and malfunctions.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T27E5. Tested in June 1944; excessive malfunctions terminated the test after the one gun blew up.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T27E6. Tested early in 1945, it successfully fired 5,000 rounds at a rate

Figure 1-4. Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T27E6.

of over 1,000 rounds per minute with only one breakage of major parts but 1 of the 4 guns tested had 11 malfunctions.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T27E7. In March 1945 the last version was tested and successfully completed the 5,000 round test without going beyond the numbers of acceptable malfunctions but suffered excessive breakage of minor parts. In the overdevelopment of the T27 series, unsatisfactory performance and danger to personnel and equipment caused by the unusual number of breakages and explosions were responsible for the decision in March 1945 that no further consideration would be given this weapon.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T2S. Developed by Springfield Armory to produce a high cyclic rate gun. Specifications called for 1,200 rounds per minute without, breakages.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T34. Air Force requirement for the fabrication of a gun which would have a cyclic rate of 1,500 rounds per minute. Project assigned to Springfield. This was to be an entirely new mechanism, operating on a principle suitable for very high-speed operation. Preliminary drawings of this gun were received in August 1945, and after careful study, the Springfield Armory was requested to supply additional drawings.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T35. To fulfill the Air Force requirement for a gun with a cyclic rate of 1,500 rounds per minute, a project was set up to modify the M2 Browning.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T36. During the development of a high speed caliber .50 machine gun, certain very valuable improvements were made which were applicable to the standard M2 caliber .50 aircraft gun. In September 1944, it was decided to incorporate immediately into the M2 gun these features which had been proven in tests of various experimental high speed guns. This improved gun, designated T36, was designed to accomplish limited objectives, compared to the M2 gun, namely: (1) reduction in recurrent malfunctions; (2) increase in cyclic rate of approximately 100 rounds per minute; and (3) increase in belt lift capacity to 30 pounds minimum consistent with the accomplishment of these objectives.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T38. A further development of the M3 by Frigidairc in 1945. This design was also in response to the Air Force requirement for a 1,500 round per minute gun. Limited

Browning FrigidaireBrowning Gun Set
Figure 16. Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T42.

firing was conducted at rates up to 1,450 rounds per minute by Frigidaire.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T42. Intended for use as an antiaircraft weapon with a rate of fire of 700 rounds per minute. Similar to the Browning M3 but uses heavy barrel and short barrel support.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 TOO. This was a project set up in 1948 to develop an aircraft gun with a rate of fire 2,000 rounds per minute.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T164. The armored force established a requirement for a caliber .50 machine gun for use on tank turrets with the provision that it must incorporate a short receiver. Springfield Armory built a revolver type based on the 20-mm T74 and this is designated the caliber .50 T164.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T175. Similar to the T176, cxccpt barrel energy is transmitted by hydraulic means. Also intended for tanks.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 T176. The T176 was designed in response to the requirement for a short receiver tank gun. it is a nonconventional type in which the barrel energy is used to operate the mechanism indirectly through Belleville springs. It was designed for alternate use at a high and low rate of fire.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 Ml. The experimental Browning T2 caliber .50 machine gun was standardized for cavalry and infantry without modification as the Ml. This model never went into production.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 M2. Further development of the Browning system produced the M2 series which was standardized in 1933. The three principal versions were water-cooled, aircraft, and heavy barrel. The three guns utilized the same basic receivers. The water-cooled gun was for antiaircraft use; the heavy-barrel gun was intended for use by and against armored vehicles, and the aircraft gun with its 36-inch air-cooled barrel was for use in aircraft. Later, several other varieties were standardized, all of which used the same basic receiver. An important characteristic of the M2 series is the ability to convert from one type to another.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 M2A1. In 1944, the limited procurement of 31,336 of the T36 guns was authorized. This procurement was discontinued

Machine Gun ReceiverM2a1 Figure
Figure 1-7. Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 M3.

after approximately 8,000 guns had been produced because of the unexpected progress made in the development of the T25E3 high-speed gun, which led to its standardization as the M3 earlier than had been thought possible. Following the standardization of the M3 gun, the T36 gun was reclassified as limited standard, and redesignated Gun, Machine, Browning, Caliber .50, M2A1. Aircraft, Basic.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 M2EI. The records do not indicate the history of the M2E1.

Gun, Machine, Caliber .50 M3. In 1945 the caliber .50 Browning T25E3 was standardized as the M3. There are slight variations in guns of early and later manufacture. The M3 gun is based upon the caliber .50 aircraft machine gun M2 and has essentially the same exterior dimensions, except for the increased diameter of the backplate buffer, and the length added by the recoil booster. It fires at a cyclic rate of approximately 1,200 rounds per minute with standard ammunition and links. Nearly all parts of the M3 gun differ in detail from those of the M2, having been improved in design and metallurgy.

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