Annotated Bibliography

Appendix B is a rccord of the principal sources on automatic weapons. These sources include books, magazine articles, pamphlets, manuals, and official reports and documents. Each entry includes author or issuing agcncy, title, date, series number, and other identifying data, followed by a brief description of the contents and special features of the work.

For security reasons, many references on recent and proposed weapons under development in the United States and other countries can not be listed in this volume, which has been prepared for general distribution. Other sources which must also be omitted are official correspondence on various weapons and personal correspondence and conversations with inventors, manufacturers, and researchers in the field of ordnance.

The appendix is arranged in two sections. Section I is an alphabetic grouping of general works on machinc guns and other automatic weapons. Section II contains works on individual weapons, inventors, or manufacturers and the entries are listed under specific topics, arranged alphabetically.

Section i—General Works

Aberdeen Proving Ground

Air Corps --Ordnance conference. IB Jun 1937. Conference between representatives of the two services. Discussion of: experimental airplane projects; relative merits of all guns and ammunition; aircraft cannon; machine guns: ballistics; and other topics.

Aberdeen Proving Ground

Ordnance School text. Foreign material, Vol. 1. Feb 1943. (OS 9-61)

Includes chapters on hand and shoulder weapons (German Mauser, 7.92 mm, German antitank rifle, 7.92 mm, Pz, B.39, Schmcisser machine pistol, 9 mm MP40, Bcrgmann submachine gun, 9 mm) light machine guns (MGH, Breda Ml930, Sfitalui light mg, model 1937, French light mg: cal. 7.5 mm, M1924-29, Jap Nambu machine rifle, M1922) and heavy machine guns (Jap heavy rug, cal. 7.7 mm, model 92). Illustrated.

Aircraft armament—Italy. 15 Apr 1922. (Service report)

A summary of Italian development at time of report, with photographs,

Argentina. Army

Report on machine gun competition. 17 Feb 1939. Translation of report on tests of seven different European weapons for Argentine government. Colt weapon, already the Argentine regulation machine gun, made best performance.

L'armemcnt de nos avions militaires. (In I'Aerophile, 1936, pp. 123, 170, 194, 218) Series of articles on French air armament. (In French.) The automatic machine gun in our Navy. (Manuscript1!

Summary of Navy's use of machine guns in past 50 years. Balleiscn, Charles E.

German mass production methods: the use of stamped components in gun manufacture. (In Army Ordnance, Sep-Oct 1946, p. 147)

Translated from Sep 1943 German document of Deutsche Waff en and Munitionsfabriken A. G., Posen. Process used on FLAK 38, MG 151, 30-mm MK 108. Illustrations.

Balleiscn, Charles F/.

Principles of firearms. N. Y., 1945. 146 p. <4The purpose of this book is to expound the concept that an automatic firearm is a piece of machinery operating in accordance with well-known laws of physics and hence capable of being analyzed and designed in accordance with common engineering practice." A limited number of familiar weapons arc analyzed from the viewpoint of a mechanical engineer. Chapters on gun barrel, recoil, functions, systems and existing types of automatic weapons, trigger and sear mechanisms, feeds, sights, design problems, testing, exterior ballistics and gun mounts.

Illustrations; bibliography after each chapter.

Baranski, Gerhard

The systems of automatic weapons. (Chapter 1 of Textbook for automatic weapons—Dec 1939)

(BIOS translation BTOS/Gr. 2/HEC/l 1707/TII) Translation from Rheinmetall publication. Contents: Supply of energy for the loading operation; Locking of the breech mrchanism. Closed and open systems; Cartridge feed and loading; Extraction and ejection of case; Device for directing flow of gas at muzzle; Springs and rubber buffers as accumulators; Accelerating devices for breec.h mechanism; Safety and locking devices in general. Charts and drawings.

Small arms manual, London, 1942. 232 p. Covers rifles, machine guns, machine carbines, revolvers, pistols. Summarizes knowledge on British, U. S. and enemy weapons: Identifying data, operation, stripping, stoppages and special features. Drawings included.

Weapons of World War II. X. Y., 1947, Ordnance weapons used in WW II displayed by means of developmental and action photos; characteristics and high lights of their development also set forth. Brief chapter on aircraft armament (20 mm MS; 37 mm automatic gun, M4; and 75 mm gun, M4)

Bartlett, Wallacc A.

Some weapons of war as improved by recent American inventors. Washington, 1883. 98 p.

Includes chapters on small arms, revolvers and machinc guns. The latter covers Billinghurst & Requa, Gatling, Hotrh-kiss, McLean, Gardner & Lowell. Illustrated.

Benet, Laurencc V.

Machinc guns, their development, limitations and future demands. (In Army Ordnance, Mar-Apr 1937, p. 270)

"A succinct review of development and of certain characteristics of the more modern automatic weapons.'1 Author, famous designer and official of Hotchkiss Co.

Blagonravov, A. A.

Basic principles for the planning of automatic weapons. (Translation of extracts from Russian manual.) 1942. (Mauser Works report no. 1178)

Includes anti-tank weapons, barrel vibrations, life and wear of harrels, supplementary arrangements, systems with nonlocking bolts, gas operated weapons, extraction, recoil.

Blagonravov, A. A.

Material'naya chast* strclkovogo oruzha. Kniga pervaya. Moscow, 1945.

Russian volume describing rifles and revolvers. Illustrated. ("Evolution of small arms'*) (vol. 1)

Blagonravov, A. A.

MatcriaPnaya chast' strelkovogo orushiya. Kniga vtoraya. Moscow, 1946. 832 pages.

(In Russian) ("Evolution of small arms," vol. 2) Description, data and drawings of automatic guns of all nations. Also breakdown drawings.

Blagonravov, A. A.

Material'naya chast' strclkovogo orushiya, kn. II. (Infantry weapons, book II) Moscow, 1946. (I. IX 496228)

Translation of pages 5-42 of subject book. Chapter I, "Machine ^un supports and machine gun mounts." Ch. II— "Light machinc guns.'' Russian ms attached.

A century of guns: a sketch of the leading types of sporting and military small arms. London, 1909. Section on Maxim is included. Illustrated.

Bond, A. Russell

Guns that fire themselves. (In St. Nicholas, Vol. XLV, Apr 1918, p. 538-43)

Excellent elementary article on development and principles of Galling, Maxim, Browning, Hotchkiss and Lewis guns. Illustrated.

Aircraft guns, part II. (In Army Ordnance. Jul Aug 1922, P- 19)

Describes use in WW I. Illustrated.

Bruchiss, Louis

Aircraft armament. N. Y., 1945.

Details on aircraft bombs, aircraft machine guns, aircraft cannon, ammunition, turrets, foreign aircraft weapons, antiaircraft weapons, gunnery training, future weapons and air warfare. Illustrated.

Budayevskiy, S.

Kurs artillerii. 5th edition. 3 volumes. St. Petersburg, 1907.

Part II—Hand weapons and machine guns. Illustrated. (In Russian)

Budayevskiy, S.

Kurs artillerii. 5 volumes. St. Petersburg, 1912. Vol. 1—General information as to weapons; v. 2—Rifles, recolvers and firing from same; v. 3—Machine guns, automatic pistols arid firing from same ; v. 4—Firing problems and firing tables for 3-line guns and machine guns; v. 5—Armament and firing of artillery. Illustrations. (In Russian)

The modern machinc gun. (In Current History, vol. 5» Oct 1916, p. 737-40) Brief historical article.

Report of visit to European small arms and small arms ammunition factories, year 1929.

A detailed account, with many photographs, of the current (1929) armament used in ten European countries, and a discussion of the production of weapons and ammunition in the factories of these countries. Contains a tabulation of light machinc guns used by the various countries.

Coint-Bavarot, R.

Emploi comparé des canons et des mitrailleuses dans la bataille aérienne. (In Revue de l'armée de l'air, 6th yr, vol. 1, 1934, p. 123)

Lists characteristics of aerial weapons, adaptation to different types of aircraft and other considérations. (In French.)

Colt's Patent Fire Arms Mfg. Co.

A century of achievement, 1836-1936. (Colt's 100th anniversary fire arms manual) Hartford, Conn., 1937.

A history of the firm which manufactured Gatling gun, Colt-Browning, Maxim, Benet-Mereie, Vickers, and Browning guns. Illustrated.

Col vin, Fred H. and Viall, Ethan

United States rifle and machine guns. N. Y., 1917. Illus., 328 p.

Contains descriptions of operation and mechanisms of Springfield and Enfield rifles; also of IJ. S. machine rifle, cal. .30, Model 1909, Lewis machine gun and Vickcrs Model 1915. Illustrated.

Commission Interalliée de Control Aéronautique en Allemagne

Rapport technique. Vol. III. Armement: Bombardement aerien; Tir a la mitrailleuse; Tir au canon. 1923.

Chapters on Gast 2-barrcl mg, Becker 2-cm cannon, Sza-kats cannon. Each with description, operation, breakdown, detailed drawings. (In French)

Corner, J.

The German development of recoilless guns for aircraft. (In Aircraft Engineering, Dec 1947, p. 378)

Based on Davis gun, two types were developed by Germans in WW II. (1) 14-inch forward firing gun mounted in Do 217. (2) S. G. vertical firing guns (45-mm and 3 cm). Also experiments with jet guns in aircraft by Rheininetall, which never went into service. Illustrated.

Cross man, Edward C.

The story of the machine gun. (In Popular Science monthly, Vol. 90, 1917, p. 666-70)

Outline of the development of the machine gun from Catling to Lewis with emphasis on American origins of the various weapons. Illustrated.

CrowelI, Benedict

America's munitions, i917-18. Washington, 1919. Author was Asst. Sccrctary of War and Director of Munitions. Chapter on machine guns. Illustrated.

Automatise he waff en. Frauenfeld, Ger., 1939. (In German.) (122 illustrations)

Discussion of ballistic principles, systems, use for antiaircraft and aircraft installation.

Devougcs, Marcel

L'avenement des armes automatiques; technique et emploi des arms, organisation des unités de tir. Paris, 1924.

(In French.) Technique and use of automatic weapons arc covered in first part. Second part summarizes development and history of weapons. Illustrated.

Engcl, Leonard

The guns grow larger. (In Popular Aviation, Jan 1940, p. 10)

Describes trend toward more powerful armament (20 and 37 mm cannon). Illustrated.

Etienne, P.

Secteurs de feux, (fn Revue de l'armée de l'air, Jul-Dec, 1938, p. 858)

Discusses value of armament on planes to cover all fields of visibility. (In French)

Farrow, Edward S.

American guns in the war with Germany. N. V., 1920. Contains chapter on machine guns, with statistics on production. Illustrated.

Farrow, Edward S.

Descriptions of arms of American patent or manufacture.

Farrow, Edward S.

Militai y encyclopedia: a dictionary of military knowledge. N. Y., 1885.

Brief treatments of military topics, including automatic weapons. Illustrated.

Complete descriptions of most important 19th century weapons.

Guns for firing from airplanes. 14 Nov 1917. 22 p. Author comes to conclusion thai airplanes should carry 75 mm gun firing at low muzzle velocity to shell ground areas.

Sovrcmieunoye polozhenie pulemietnavo diela. 1907. 104 p.

(In Russian) "Present status of automatic guns" lecture read in the Society for Promotion of Military Knowledge. Illustrated, with captions translated into English.

Fedcrov, V.

Zvolyupiya strelkovogo oruzhiya. Chasf II. Razvitie avtomaticheskogo sruzhiya. Moscow, 1939.

(In Russian) Describes and illustrates Soviet and foreign automatic weapons.

Masrhinengewehre, ihre technik und taktik. Berlin, 1909. (In German) Includes Schwarzlose, Skoda, Bergmann. Illustrated.

Maschinengcwehre. ihre technik und taktik, neueste fort-schritte, jahrgang 1913. Berlin, 1914.

Contains diagrams of Dreyse mg and Berthier mg. (In German)


Die neuesten maschincngcwehre, fortschritte und Streitfragen. Berlin, 1910.

("Latest machine guns; their progress and questions of dispute") (In German) Includes Odkolek mg, Perino mg. Illustrated.

Maschinengewehre, ihre technik und taktik. Neueste fortschritte, jahrgang 1912. Berlin, 1913.

Describes development in field of machine guns for the year 1912. Illustrated. (In German)

Fortune (periodical)

Arms and the men. Garden City, 1934. 58 p. Describes organization and personalities of world's munitions firms. Portraits of leaders.

On mitraillcurs, and their placc in the wars of the future. (In Journal of the Royal United Service Institution, vol. XIII, 1870, p. 539) 17 p.

Observations on Ager, Claxton, French, Catling and Montigny weapons. Illustrated.

France. Ministry of War

Renseignements sur la fabrication des mitrailleuses en Al-lemagne. May Aug 1919. (C. R. no. 19B)

(In French) Lists German machine gun factories during WTorld War 1. Brief descriptions of T. u. F. and Gast weapons.

France. Ministry of War

Report on comparative tests of automatic rifles. 20 Feb 1924.

Tests were made in 1923 on Berthier, Browning, St. Etienne, Hotchkiss (belt and magazine types), Madsen and C'hatellerault. General estimate given for each. Decision was made to adopt Chatellerault. Drawings and tables.

German aircraft armament. (In The Aeroplane, Jun 14, 1940, p. 794).

Describes Rheininetall guns installed in WW II German guns. Illustrated.

Germanv. Luftwaffe

Current aircraft armament of greater Germany (G. D.), Great Britain (G. B.), U. S. A., and the Soviet Union (S. U.). 1 Aug 1944

Translation of aircraft armament comparative chart by Technical Intelligence Branch, Ord Dept. Tabulation gives caliber, designation, construction, feeding mechanism, weight, cyclic rate, vo., kinetic energy at muzzle and mount.

Giardini, Walter

Armi c tiro. Rome, 1943.

Describes Breda-Safat 7.7 and 12.7 mm guns, Scotti-Isotta Fraschini I 2.7-inin guns and other weapons used by Italians. Illustrated. (In Italian)

Goddard, Calvin

The machine gun a period of evolution» parts I—V. (In Army Ordnance, May 42-Jan 43)

The following weapons are described and illustrated: Terrel machine cannon, Barnes machine cannon, Ripley gun, Douglass & Brett cuns (1864), Gatling gun and cartridges, French mitrailleuse, and Fold gun.

Goddard, Calvin

The machine gun—The period of recognition, parts I—VI. (In Army Ordnance, Mar 43 Jan 44)

Describes and illustrates early weapons, including Bailey, Gardner, Gatling, Palmcrantz, Ager, Taylor, Vandenberg, Lowell and Maxim guns.

Goddard, Calvin

The machine gun—Its earliest application. Parts I—IV. (In Army Ordnance, Sep 41-Apr 42)

Discussion, with illustrations, of Billinghurst-Requa, Gatling and other Civil War guns, Ager, Montignv, Claxton, Gorgas and Vandenberg.

Gorton, Walter T.

Aircraft machine guns. (In Aviation, June 6, 1921. p. 724)

Discussion of development during World War I. Illustrated.

Gt. Brit. War Office

Instructions for use of permanent staff instructors ... in regard to care, inspection and repair, etc., of small arms, machine guns and bicycles. London, 1933.

Gt. Brit. War Office

Technical intelligence summary no. 74. 28 May 1942. Contains section on Italian medium machine guns with specifications.

Gt. Brit. War Office

Textbook of small arms. London, 1929. 427 p. Contains definitions of terms. Chapters on revolvers and self loading pistols, machine guns and light machine guns, small arm arnmuniiton, ballistics of small arms. Appendix IX contains details of machine guns of various powers in tabular form.

Soviet aircraft guns. Oct 1949.

A report on aircraft guns used by the Soviet Air Force during WW II. Not intended to include technical details but rather to indicate type of weapon and make comparison with similar weapons of known performance. Includes Shkas 7.62 mm, BS 12.7 mm, Shvak 20 mm, VJa 23 rnm and NS 37 mm, also turrets and mountings, maintenance and ammunition. Photographs and tabulation of data on guns and ammunition.

Gt. Brit. Admiralty

20 millimeter anti-aircraft machine guns; summary of Royal Navy's experience with Ocrlikon, Hispano and Madsen. 6 Nov 1940

Preference finally given to Ocrlikon.

Gt. Brit. Air Ministry

Handbook of foreign aircraft guns. Nov 1912. Summarizes German, Italian, Russian and Japanese weapons (MG 15, 17,81, 131, 151, 151/20, FF MK 101) (Breda, Shkas, Berezin, Shvak. Experimental, Oerlikon). Diagrams. Table on weight of projectiles fired per minute—German and Italian.

Guns, allied and enemy. London, 1940. Contains 100 photos and diagrams.

Hatcher, Julian S. Hatcher's note book. Harrisburg, 1947. A standard reference book for shooters, gunsmiths, ballis-ticians, historians, hunters, and collectors. Contains brief history of service cartridges, automatic gun mechanisms, development of machine guns, receiver steels & heat treatment, headspace, recoil, notes on gunpowder, gun corrosion, and random notes. Illustrated.

Automatic firearms; mechanical principles used in the various types. Part I. (In Army Ordnance, Mar-Apr 1933, p. 269)

Describes blowback, retarded blowback and blow-forward principles. Illustrated.

Part II (same, May-Jun 1933, p. 339). Describes recoil operated (short arid long) and gas operated types.

Hatcher, Julian S.

The machine gun of the future. (In Army Ordnance, v. 1, 1920, p. 39)

Future needs are longer range, more mobile vehicles, more powerful projectiles, better fuses and better powder.

Machine guns. Menasha, Wis., 1918. Part I. Materiel, by Maj. Julian S. Hatcher. Part 11. Practical handling of machine gun fire, by Maj. Glenn P. Wilhelm.

Part III. Machine gun tactics, by Maj. Harry J. Maloriey. Based on notes prepared for instruction at the first U. S. Army machine gun school at Ilarlingen, Texas.

Part I contains historical chapter and chapters on Chau-chat. Hotchkiss, Benet-Mercie, Lewis, Maxim-Vickers, and Colt!

Hawks, Ellison

Aircraft armament, past and present. Southport, Eng., 1943.

Part T. Machine guns and mounting of the synchronizing gear. (From early Lewis to modern Browning) Illustrated.

Hicks, James E.

Notes of French ordnance. 1717 to 1936. n. d. Brief descriptions of French models of machine guns and automatic rifles. Illustrated.

Hicks, James E.

What the citizen should know about our arms and weapons. X. Y., 1941.

Contains chapter on machine guns. Illustrated.

Heiden, Hermann

Gewehre frei! Weg und ruhrn der maschinengcwehrwaffe. Berlin, 1938. 215 p.

A historical summary of use of machine i^uns in warfare. (In German} Contains numerous illustrations & bibliography of German titles.

Hodges, LcRoy

Notes on post-war ordnance development. Richmond,

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