Contents

PART X—ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMS

Chapter PaPc

1 Blow back 3

Blowback Operation 3

Behavior of Cartridge Case 3

Phase 1 5

Phase 2 5

Phase 3

Conclusions

Chamber Pressure '

Case Movement ?

Lubrication 8

Cartridge Case W

Blowback Systems 11

Plain Blowback System 1 1

Cycle of Opera I ion 12

Analysis of Plain Blowback 12

Mathematical Analysis of Plain Blowback 16

1. Determination of Bole Weight 18

2. Determination of Driving Spring Design Data 21

3. Derivation of Bolt Motion Equations 23

4. Development of Theoretical Time-Travel and Time-Velocity

Curves 24

5. Note Concerning Driving Springs 28

Blowback System With Advanced Primer Ignition 20

Cycle of Operation 30

Analysis of Advanced Primer Ignition 30

Mathematical Analysis of Advanced Primer Ignition 33

1. Determination of Bolt Weight 33

2. Determination of Driving Spring Design Data 36

3. Bolt Motion Equations 38

4. Development of Theoretical Time-Travel and Time-Velocity

Curves 39

Delayed Blowback System 42

Cycle of Operation 4.>

Analysis of Delayed Blowback 4.>

Mathematical Analysis of Delayed Blowback 45

1. Conditions of Free Recoil Before Unlocking 45

2. Effect of Springs Before Unlocking 46

3. Theoretical Time-Travel arid Time-Velocity Curves Before

Unlocking 46

4. Barrel Motion After Unlocking 48

5. Bolt Motion After Unlocking ^

Retarded Blowback System 54

Cycle of Operation 55

Analysis of Retarded Blowback 55

Mathematical Analysis of Retarded Blowback 58

1. Initial Retardation Effect ^8

2. Analysis of Bolt Motion 60

Chapter Page

2 Recoil Operation 63

Principles of Recoil 63

Recoil Operation 65

Rccoil Svstems 65

Long Recoil System 66

Cycle of Operation 66

Analysis of Long Rccoil. . 68

Mathematical Analysis of Long Recoil 71

1. Condition of Free Rccoil 73

2. Determination of Spring Design Data 76

3. Derivation of Recoil Equations 70

4. Development of Theoretical Time-Travel and rime-Velocity

Curves 80

Short Recoil System 87

Cycle of Operation 87

Analysis of Short Recoil 89

Bolt Velocity

Blowback Action 01

Action of Accelerating Device 03

Timing of Various Operations 07

Mathematical Analysis of Short Recoil 08

1. Conditions of Free Recoil 09

2. Effect of Blowback Before Acceleration and Computation of

Unlocking Time 101

3. Selection of Spring Characteristics 103

4. Theoretical Time-Travel and Time-Velocity Curves Before

Acceleration 103

5. Motions During Period of Bolt Acceleration 105

6. Barrel Recoil Motion After Acceleration 112

7. Bolt Kecoil Motion After Acceleration 114

8. Reversing Action of Backplate Buffer 115

0. Motion of Bolt After Reversal at Backplate 117

10. Motion of Barrel Before Accelerator is Reengaged 118

11. Return Motion of Barrel and Bolt During Action of Accelerating

Lever 120

12. Barrel and Bolt Motion After 0.0441 Second 123

3 Gas Operation 126

Principles of Gas Operation 126

Gas System of Operation 131

Cycle of Operation 131

Analysis of Gas Operation 133

Amount of Piston Energy Obtainable 134

Timing of Piston Travel 139

Transfer of Energy From Piston to Bolt 140

Motions of Gun Mechanism in Rccoil 145

Forward Motion of Gun Parts 140

Mathematical Analysis of Gas Operation 140

1. Conditions of Free Recoil 152

2. Effect of Blowback Before Piston Strikes Bolt and Computation of Unlocking Time 156

3. Selection of Barrel Spring Characteristics and Determination of

Counter-Recoil Velocity 158

4. Effect of Using Advanced Primer Ignition on Free Recoil Before

Unlocking Occurs 150

Chapter Page

3 Gas Operation—Continued

Gas System of Operation—Continued

Mathematical Analysis of Gas Operation—Continued

5. Theoretical Time-Travel and Time-Velocity Curves Before

Unlocking Occurs 159

6. Theoretical Time-Travel and Time-Velocity Curves After Un locking and Selection of Bolt Driving Spring Characteristics. . 161

7. Impact of Piston on Bolt 164

8. Design of Gas Mechanism and Analysis of Piston Motion ... 167

9. Theoretical Time-Travel and Time-Velocity Curves After Piston

Impact 168

10. Analvsis of Events at End of Recoil 172

11. Counter-Recoil Motions of Bolt and Gun 174

12. Gun Motion After Bolt Locks to Barrel 176

4 Rotary Chamber Mechanisms 178

Historical Background of the Revolver 178

Principles of Multiple Chamber Weapons 183

Principles of Rotary Chamber Mechanisms 197

Cycle of Operation 197

Analysis of Rotary Action Features 198

PART XI—SCHEMATIC ILLUSTRATIONS OF REPRESENTATIVE

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