C

2-10 Development of Time-Travel Curves for First 0.010 Second 82

2-11 Time-Travel and Time-Velocity Curves (Complete Cycle) 84

2-12 Variation of Spring Forces With Time 85

2-13 Velocity-Displacement Curve 86

2-14 Elements of Short-Recoil System (Schematic) 88

2-15 Action of Catapult Lcvcr-Type Accelerating Mechanism 90

2-16 Limit of Cartridge Case Movement Rearward Before Residual Pressure Reaches

Safe Value 92

2- 17 Graph of Residual Pressure Versus Time for a Typical 20 mm Gun 92

2-18 Action of a Catapult Spring Accelerating Device 95

2-19 Example of a Muzzle Booster 96

2-20 Free Recoil Velocity While Projectile Is in Bore 100

2-21 Free Recoil Velocity Before Unlocking 101

2-22 Changes in Bolt Velocity Imparted by Blowback and Determination of l ime for

Unlocking 102

2-23 Development of Time-Travel and Time-Velocity Curves for Period Before Unlocking 105

2-24 Development of Time-Travel and Time-Velocity Curves for Period Between Unlocking and Start of Acceleration 106

2 25 Efiect of Acceleration on Travel and Velocity of Barrel and Bolt 109

2-26 Energies Affecting Motion of Bolt During Action of Accelerating Lever . ... 110

2-27 Time-Travel and Time-Velocity Curves Lip to End of Acceleration Period . . 112

2 -28 Data Pertaining to Action of Accelerating Lever 113

2-29 Effect of Barrel Return Spring on Barrel Motion After Acceleration 114

2-30 Time-Travel and Time-Velocity Curves for Complete Cycle of Operation . . 115

2-31 Effect of Boll Driving Spring on Bolt Motion After Acceleration 116

2-32 Effect of Bolt Driving Spring on Motion of Bolt After Reversal of Motion at

Backplate 118

2 33 Effect of Barrel Spring on Barrel Motion After Unlatching 119

2 34 Barrel Velocity and Time Versus Barrel Travel During Action of Accelerator in

Counter-Recoil 122

2 35 Bolt Velocity and Time Versus Bolt Travel During Action of Accelerator in

Counter-Recoil 122

2-36 Barrel and Bolt Motion Versus Time During Action of Accelerator During Coun ter-Recoil 123

3-1 Typical Gas Operated Gun 126

3-2 Action of Gas Cylinder and Piston 128

3-3 Variation of Chamber Pressure With Time 129

3-4 Graph of Projectile Bore Travel Versus Time (20 mm Gun) 129

3- 5 Barrel Pressure and Pressure in Gas Cylinder 130

Figure Page

3-6 Elements of a Gas Operated Gun (Schematic) 132

3-7 Force Exerted on Piston 134

3-8 Impulse Imparted to Piston 135

3-9 Limit of Cartridge Case Movement Rearward Before Residual Pressure Reaches

Safe Distance 137

3 -10 Graph of Residual Pressure V ersus Time for a Typical 20 mm Gun 138

3-11 Principle of Timing Piston Action 140

3-12 Graph uf Factors Related to Selection of Piston Weight and Velocity 143

3-13 Distribution of Piston Energy for Various Weights 144

3-14 Variation of Bolt Velocity With Time When Driving Spring Absorbs All of Bolt

Energy 146

3-15 Time-Velocity Characteristic of Ring Spring Buffer 148

3-16 Desirable Time-Velocity Characteristic for Recoil Buffer 148

3-17 Graph of Chamber Pressure Versus Time (20 mm Gun) 151

3-18 Graph of Projectile Velocity Versus Time (20 mm Gun) 152

3-19 Graph of Projectile Bore Travel Versus Time (20 mm Gun) 153

3 20 Free Recoil Velocity While Projectile Is in Bore 154

3-21 Free Recoil Velocity Before Unlocking 155

3-22 Free Recoil Velocity (With No Gas Cylinder) 156

3-23 Impulse of Chamber Pressure 157

3-24 Changes in Bolt Velocity Imparted by Blowback and Determination of Time for Unlocking 158

3-25 Free Recoil Velocity Before Unlocking (With Advanced Primer Ignition) ... 160 3-26 Development of Time-'l ravel and Time-Velocity Curves for Period Before Unlocking 162

3-27 Development of Time-Travel and Time-Velocity Curves for Period Between

Unlocking and Impact of Piston on Bolt 163

3-28 Factors Related to Selection of Piston Weight and Velocity in Gun of Example . 165

3-29 Distribution of Piston Energy for Various Piston Weights in Gun of Example . . 166

3-30 Assumed Pressure Rise in Gas Cylinder 168

3-31 Time-Travel and Timc-Vclocity Curves for Piston Before Impact With Bolt ... 169 3-32 Effect of Bolt Driving Spring and Barrel Spring Up to Instant Bolt Strikes Back-

3-33 Time-Travel and Time-Velocity Curves for Gun and Bolt Up to Instant Bolt

Strikes Backplate 171

3-34 Complete Time-Travel and Time-Velocity Curves for Gas OpcraLed Gun ... 173

3-35 Effcct of Bolt Driving Spring and Barrel Spring During Counter-Recoil 175

3-36 Extension of Time-Travel and Time-Velocity Curves for Interval Before Bolt

Relocks to Barrel 176

4-1 Matchlock Revolving Gun and Revoking Flintlock Rifle 179

4-2 Principle of the "Coffee Mill" Type Gun 184

4-3 Mechanism of "Bicycle Chain" Gun 186

4 4 Elementary Form of Gun Having Chamber Separate From Barrel 187

4 5 Graph Showing Variation of Chamber Pressure With Bore Travel of Projectile . 190

4-6 Simplified Schematic of a Typical Gas-Operated Rotary Action Cannon ... 196

4-7 Use. of Scaling Rings ai Chamber Gap 201

4-8 Method of Sealing With Neck uf Cartridge Case (With "Buried" Projectile

Ammunition) 202

4-9 Method of Scaling With Neck of Cartridge Case Using Conventional Ammunition 203

4-10 Action of Gas Piston Seal 204

4-11 Effect of Piston Seal on Force Applied to Revolver Frame 206

4-12 Effect of Space Required for Piston Seals 207

5-1 Cam Followers on Bolt Actuate Belt Feed Lever 214

Figure Page

5-2 Roller on Boh Actuates Feed Lever 215

5-3 Cam Surfaces on Boh Actuate Belt Feed Lever 216

5-4 Lug on Operating Rod Actuates Belt Feed Lever 217

5-5 Cam Grooves in Bolt Actuate Belt Feed Lever 218-219

5-6 Follower on Barrel Extension Actuates Belt Feed Lever 220

5-7 Follower on Receiver Actuates Strip Feed Lever 221

5 8 Cam Grooves in Barrel Extension Actuate Belt Feed Levers . 222-223

5 9 Pin on Boll Actuates Bell Feed Lever 224

5-10 Cam Follower on Bolt Actuates Bell Feed Levers 225

5-11 Cam Groove in Barrel Extension Actuates Beit Feed Lever 226-227

5-12 Recoiling Barrel Extension Actuates Bell Feed Levers 228

5-13 Follower on Bolt Rotates Feed Pinion Extension 229

5-14 Piston Operated Feed Sprocket 230

5-15 Cam on Operating Rod Rotates Belt Feed Slide 231

5-16 Cam Plate Attached to Operating Rod Actuates Feed Strip Slide 232-233

5-17 Recoiling Barrel Extension Actuates Belt Feed Slide 234-235

5 18 Lug on Receiver Operates Cartridge Rammer 236-237

5 19 Cam Grooves in Bolt Extension Actuate Belt Feed Slide and Cartridge Positioning Lever 238

5-20 Recoiling Barrel Extension Operates Feed Pinions 239

5-21 Feed Strip Slide Is Actuated by Recoiling Cam Plate and Springs 240

5-22 Cam Grooves on Operating Rod Actuate Belt Feed Slide 241

5-23 Cam on Operating Rod Actuates Belt Feed Slide 242-243

5-24 Recoiling Barrel Extension Actuates Belt Feed Slide 244

5-25 Recoiling Barrel Extension Rotates Feed Sprocket 245

5 26 Cams on Operating Rod Rotate Feed Sprocket 246

5-27 Lug on Operating Rod Actuates Sprocket Rotating Cam 247

5-28 Rotating Sprocket Actuates Bicycle Type Chain Ammunition Belt 248

5-29 Cam Groove in Operating Rod Actuates Feed Sprocket Ratchet 249

5 30 Recoiling Bolt Actuates Conveyor Pinions 250

5 31 Gas Operated Rack and Pinion System Actuates Cartridge Conveyor 251

5-32 Cam Grooves in Operating Rod Actuate Cam Followers on Feed Sprocket

Surface 252 253

5-33 Blow-Forward Operating Rod Lifts Cartridge Feed Fray and Rotates Sprocket . 254

5-34 Recoiling Bolt Actuates Feed Sprocket 255

5-35 Cam Follower on Barrel Extension Rotates Feed Sprocket 256

5-36 Spiral Cam Withdraws Rimmed Ammunition From Belt 257

5-37 • Cam on Operating Rod Actuates Belt Feed Levers and Cartridge Elevators . . 258

5-38 Recoiling Cam Plate Actuates Belt Feed Lever and Cartridge Elevator 259

5-39 Cartridge Lifter Is Actuated by Cams in Receiver Wall 260

5-40 Counter-Recoiling Bolt Actuates Cartridge Lifter 261

5-41 Recoiling Bolt Actuates Cartridge.Lifter 262

5 42 Cam Track on Receiver Actuates Cartridge Lifter 263

5-43 Gas Actuated Cartridge Lifter and Rammer 264

5-44 Cam on Barrel Extension Actuates Belt Feed Lever 265

5-45 Cam on Receiver Guides .Spring-Powered Loading Tray 266

5-46 Cam on Recoiling Breech Actuates Feed Strip 267

5-47 Recoiling Breech Block Actuates Belt Feed Slide and Cocks Rammer 268-269

5-48 Spring-Loaded Cable Makes U-Shaped Magazine Possible 270

5-49 Fan-Shaped Magazine Stores Ammunition on Endless Belt of Clips 271

5-50 Recoiling Bolt Indexes Box Magazine as Each Unit Empties 272

5-51 Cam on Operating Rod Actuates Cartridge Lifter 273

5-52 Spring-Loaded Magazine Positions Cartridges in Front of Bolt 274

5 -53 Twin-Drum Magazine Feeds Cartridges Alternately to the Guns 275

Figure Page

5-54 Recoiling Breech Actuates Feed Slide and Rammer 276-277

5-55 Recoiling Bolt Actuates Cartridge Feeding Cams 278

5-56 Cain Track on Boh Annates Spring-Loaded Feeder 279

5-57 Method of Feeding Ammunition From a Charger 280

5-58 Cam on Bolt Rotates Feed Drum and Feed Sprocket 281

5 59 Cam-Operated Feed Rack Strips and Positions Cartridges From 5-Round

Clips 282-283

5-60 Rotating Sprocket Feeds Ammunition 284

5 61 Continuous Magazine Retains Empty Cases 284

5-62 Types of Links 285

5-63 Example of Link for Large-Caliber Ammunition 286

5 64 Belt Delinker 286

5-65 Belt Feed Guide Leads Belt Out on Same Side as It Enters 286

5-66 Cartridge Aligning Springs Support and Position the Round 287

5-67 Oiler Valve Actuated by Movement of Cartridges Through Feedway 288

5-68 Oiler Valve Actuated by Movement of Cartridges Through Feedway, Wetting the Wiper Brushes 288

5-69 Oiler Valve Actuated by Incoming Round. Pump Oils Next Round as Belt

Moves Out From Under Plunger 288

5 -70 Blowback Gases Atomize Small Quantity of Oil, Lubricating Chamber. Oil Is

Pumped by Action of Recoiling Gun 289

5-71 Kink-Proof Belt Guide 290

6-1 Solid Bolt Unlocked by Action of Operating Rod on Cam Groove in the Bolt . 292

6-2 Solid Bolt Is Unlocked by the Counter-Recoiling Barrel Extension 293

6-3 Gas Piston Actuates Ix>cking Lug on Bolt Extension. Gas Pressure Then Unlocks

Bolt 294

6-4 Gas Piston Actuates Locking Lug Prop. Gas Pressure Then Unlocks Bolt . . 295

6-5 Solid Bolt Head Is Unlocked by Cam Groove in the Receiver 296

6-6 Rearward Thrust of Primer and Firine Pin Causes Bolt Head To Be Unlocked . 297

6 7 Rearward Motion of Bolt Extension Causes Cam To Unlock Bolt 298

6 8 Bolt Is Not Lockcd; It Is Merely Delayed by Inclined Surfaces 299

6-9 Action of Primer on Firing Pin Causes Bolt To Unlock 300

6 10 Cam on Operating Rod Unlocks Solid Bolt 301

6-11 Solid Bolt Unlocked by Action of Operating Rod on Cam Groove in the Bolt . 302 6-12 Gas Pressure on Inclined Surfaces Force Locking Mass and Bolt to Unlocked

Position 303

6-13 High Gas Pressure Causes Spirals To Bind. When Pressure Lowers. Spirals

Slide, Unlocking the Boh 304

6-14 Cam on Operating Rod Rotates Bolt Locking Ring 305

6 15 Cam Grooves on the Receiver Force Recoiling Boh To Rotate to Unlocked

Position 306

6-16 Cam Grooves in Receiver Cause Recoiling Bolt Extension To Unlock Bolt . . 307

6 17 Boll Is Unlocked by Action of Counter-Recoiling Barrel Extension 308-309

6-18 Bolt Is Unlocked by Rotation of Locking Sleeve 310

6 19 Cam Follower in Receiver Causes Recoiling Locking Sleeve To Rotate, Unlocking the Bolt 311

6-20 Cam Groove in Receiver Causes L<K:king Sleeve To Rotate, Unlocking the Bolt . 312

6-21 Cam Groove in Receiver Causes Locking Sleeve To Rotate, Unlocking the Bolt . 313 6-22 Bolt Is Unlocked by Action of Cam Followers on the liking Block Recoiling

Against Cams in the Receiver 314

6-23 Bolt Is Unlocked by the Action of the Unlocking Cam on a Lug on the Receiver . 315

6-24 Bolt Is Unlocked When Operating Rod Rotates Unlocking Pinion 316

6-25 Bolt is Unlocked When Operating Rod Is Blown Forward Leaving the Locking

Link Unsupported 317

6-26 Action of the Fixed Link on End of Recoiling Bolt Causes It To Unlock ... 318

33*375

xvii

Figure Page

6 27 Operating Rod Pulls the Turn Over Link Out From Under the Locking Block,

Unlocking the Bolt . . 319

6-28 Recoiling Locking I .ink Pulls Bolt Free of Locking Surfaces in Receiver 320

6-29 Cam Lug on Operating Rod Lifts Bolt Free of Locking Surface 321

6-30 Cam on Operating Rod Pulls Boll Free of Locking Surface After Withdrawing

Bolt Support . 322

6-31 Recoiling Link Pulls Bolt Free of Locking Surface 323

6-32 Double Barrel Gun Unlocked by Gas and Recoil Operation 324

6-33 Bolt Slide Lifts Bolt Free of Locking Surfaces as It Recoils to Rear 325

6-34 Bolt Is Forced Into Locked Position by Action of Hammer 326

6 -35 As Barrel Recoils, It Is Cammed Free of the Slide 327

6 36 Spring Pushes Bolt Into Locking Surface When Operating Rod Removes

Unlocking Cam 328

6-37 Lug on Operating Rod Cams Bolt Out of Side Locking Surface 329

6-38 Locking Link Unlocks Barrel From Bolt 330

6-39 F,xpansion of Cartridge Case Operates Bolt Unlocking Mechanism 331

6-40 Lug on Receiver Cams Breech Block Up at a Predetermined Rate 332

6-41 Spring Pressure Unlocks Locking Lug When Link Support Is Removed . . . 333

6 42 Locking Block Is Cammed Free by Grooves in Receiver as Gun Recoils . . . 334

6 43 Operating Rod (lams Pivoted Locking Block To Unlock Bolt 335

6-44 Operating Rod Lifts Locking Link Free of Bolt 336

6-45 Cam Grooved Operating Rod Moves Locking Block Free of Bolt 337

6-46 Operating Rod Cams Breech Block Free of Barrel Extension 338

6-47 Gas Piston Rotates Locking Block to Unlocked Position 339

6-48 Cam Groove on Operating Rod Moves Locking Block Free of Barrel Face . 340-341

6 49 Block Operating Latch Opens Breech Block on Counter-Recoil 342

6-50 Breech Block Operating Cam Opens Breech Block During Recoil 343

6-51 Bolt Is Unlocked by Action of Rotary Locking Block 344

6-52 Gas Piston Cams Locking Block Free of the Bolt 345

6-53 Recoiling Barrel Extension Cams Locking Block Free of the Bolt 346

6-54 After Bolt Extension Recoils, Spring Forces Locking Block Free oi the Bolt . . 347

6-55 Operating Rod Rotales Locking Lug Free of Locking Surface 348

6-56 Operating Rod Cams Locking Block Free of Locking Surfaces of Receiver . . 349

6-57 Operating Rod Cams Locking Block Free of Locking Surfaces of Receiver . . 350

6-58 Recoiling Barrel Extension Forces Locking Block Over Unlocking Bars 351

6 59 Locking Block Is Cammed Free of Boll by Lugs on Inside of Receiver 352

6 60 Groove in Receiver Cams Locking Block Free of Bolt 353

6-61 Recoiling Mass Cams Locking Block Free of Barrel Extension 354

6 62 Operating Rod Gams Locking Block Free of Receiver 355

6-63 Barrel Extension Recoils, Camming Locking Block Free of Bolt 356-357

6 64 Operating Rod Cams Locking Block Free of Receiver 358

6--65 Locking Block Is Cammed Free of Barrel Extension by Motion of Inertia Bar . 359

6-66 Breech Block Is Operated by Spring-Loaded Rack and Pinion 360 361

6-67 Boh Is Locked by Action of Hammer on Locking Block 362

6-68 Firing Pin Recoils, Camming Locking Block Free of Barrel Extension 363

6 6lJ Cams on Operating Rod Actuate Breech Block 364

6 70 Barrel Extension Recoils, Camming Locking Lever Free of the Bolt 365

6-71 Double Barrel Gun. Barrel Extension Recoils. Unlocking Rorary Locking

6 72 Helical Splines in Barrel Extension Lock Bolt by Pressure of Bolt Extension . . 367

6 73 Spring-Loaded Balls Retard Recoil of Bolt 368

6-74 Cam on Operating Rod Actuates Locking Block 369

6-75 Spring-Loaded Locking Block Retards Recoil of Bolt 370

6-76 Locking Rollers Arc Cammed free of Barrel Extension by Rails in Receiver. . 371

Figure

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