Applying The Meterunitofmeasure Method For Ranges Up To Meters

HALFWAY POINT

400 300

During training periods, gunners must become familiar with the effect that sloping terrain has 011 the appearance of a 100-meter increment. Terrain that slopes upward gives the illusion of longer distance, and observers have a tendency to underestimate a 100-meter increment. Terrain that slopes downward gives the illusion of shorter distance. In this case, the observer's tendency is to overestimate a 100-meter increment.

FACTORS OF RANGE ESTIMATION

FACTORS AFFECTING

FACTORS CAUSING

FACTORS CAUSING

RANGE ESTIMATION

UNDERESTIMATION

OVER ESTIMATION

OF RANGE.

OF RANGE.

THE CLEARNESS OF OUT

WHEN MOST OF THE

WHEN ONLY A SMALL I

LINE AND DETAILS OF

TARGET IS VISIBLE AND

PART OF THE TARGET

THE TARGET.

OFFERS A CLEAR OUT

CAN BE SEEN OR THE

LINE.

TARGET IS SMALL IN

RELATION TO ITS SUR

ROUNDINGS.

NATURE OF TERRAIN OR

WHEN LOOKING ACROSS

WHEN LOOKING ACROSS 1

POSITION OF THE OB

A DEPRESSION THAT IS

A DEPRESSION THAT IS

SERVER.

MOSTLY HIDDEN FROM

TOTALLY VISIBILE

VIEW.

WHEN LOOKING FROM

WHEN LOOKING DOWN

LOW GROUND TOWARD

WARD FROM HIGH

HIGH GROUND.

GROUND.

WHEN LOOKING DOWN A

WHEN VISION IS NAR

STRAIGHT. OPEN ROAD,

ROWLY CONFINED, AS IN

OR ALONG A RAILROAD.

STREETS, DRAWS. OR

WHEN LOOKING OVER

FOREST TRAILS.

UNIFORM SURFACES

LIKE WATER. SNOW,

DESERT, OR GRAIN

FIELDS.

LIGHT AND ATMOSPHERE.

IN BRIGHT LIGHT OR

IN POOR LIGHT SUCH AS 1

WHEN THE SUN iS

DAWN AND DUSK; IN

SHINING FROM BEHIND

RAIN. SNOW, FOG. OR

THE OBSERVER.

WHEN THE SUN IS IN THE 1

OBSERVER'S EYES I

WHEN THE TARGET IS IN

SHARP CONTRAST WITH

WHEN TARGET BLENDS

THE BACKGROUND OR IS

INTO THE BACKGROUND

SILHOUETTED BECAUSE

OR TERRAIN.

OF ITS SIZE, SHAPE. OR

COLOR.

WHEN SEEN IN THE

CLEAR AIR OF HIGH

ALTITUDES.

Proficiency in the 100-meter-unit-of-measure method requires constant practice. Throughout the training in this technique, comparisons should be frequently made between the range as determined by the gunner and the actual range as determined by pacing or other, more accurate means of measurement. The best training technique is to require the gunner to pace the range after he has visually determined it. In this way, he discovers the actual range for himself, which makes a much greater impression than if he is simply told the correct range.

A limitation of the 100-meter-unit-of-measure method is that its accuracy is directly related to the amount of terrain visible to the observer. This is particularly true at the greater ranges. If a target appears at a range of 500 meters or more, and the observer can only see a portion of the ground between himself and the target, it becomes difficult to use the 100-meter-unit-of-rneasure method of range determination with any degree of accuracy.

Appearance-of-Objects Method. The appearance-of-objects method is a means of determining range by the size and other characteristic details of the object. This is a common method of determining distances and is used by most people. For example, a motorist trying to pass another car must judge the distance of oncoming vehicles based on his knowledge of how vehicles appear at various distances. In this example, the motorist is not interested in precise distances but only in having enough road space to safely pass the car in front of him. Suppose, however, the motorist knew that at a distance of 1 kilometer an oncoming vehicle appeared to be 1 centimeter wide and 2 centimeters high, with about a half centimeter between headlights. Then, anytime he saw other oncoming vehicles which fitted these dimensions he would know they were about 1 kilometer away. This same technique can be used by gunners to determine ranges on the battlefield. If the gunner knows the characteristic size and detail of men and equipment at known ranges, he can compare these characteristics to similar objects at unknown ranges. When the characteristics match, so does the range.

To use the appearance-of-objects method with any degree of accuracy, the gunner must be familiar with the characteristic details of objects as they appear at various ranges. For example, the gunner should study the appearance of a man standing at a range of 100 meters. He fixes the man's appearance firmly in his mind, carefully noting details of size and the characteristics of uniform and equipment. Next, he studies the same man in a kneeling position and then in a prone position. By comparing the appearance of the man at known ranges from 100 to 500meters, the gunner can establish a series of mental images which will help determine range on unfamiliar terrain. Training should also be conducted in the appearance of other familiar objects such as weapons or vehicles. Because the successful use of this method depends upon visibility, anything which limits visibility (such as weather, smoke, or darkness) will also limit the effectiveness of this method.

Combination of Methods. Under ideal conditions, either the 100-meter-unit-of-measure or the appearance-of-objects method is an effective method of determining range. However, ideal conditions rarely exist on the battlefield, so the gunner must use a combination of methods. The terrain might limit the use of the appearance-of-objects method. For example, a gunner may not be able to see all the terrain out to the target; however, he may see enough to get a general idea of the distance. A slight haze may obscure many of the target details, but the gunner should still be able to judge its size. By carefully considering the ranges estimated by both methods, an experienced gunner should arrive at a figure close to the true range. The best way to reduce ranging errors using these two methods is to train frequently.

LATERAL DISTANCE MEASUREMENT

In addition to being able to determine range accurately, the gunner needs a quick method of measuring lateral distance (right or left) from a reference point to a target.

When the gun is mounted on the tripod, width can be measured by aiming on a point, manipulating the traversing hand wheel, and counting the clicks from one point of aim to another point of aim. Each click equals 1 mil and is equivalent to 1 meter at 1,000 meters, or half a meter at 500 meters.

The fingers can be used to measure the lateral distance between a reference point and a target. Extend the arm with the palm outward, lower the fingers, and lock the elbow. Close one eye, raise the index finger, and sight along its edge, placing the edge of the finger along the flank of the target or reference point. Note the space remaining between the points, and then till this space by raising fingers until the space is covered. The measurement from the reference point to the target is then stated as being one or more fingers, depending upon how many fingers are raised to cover this distance.

FIRE CONTROL REQUIREMENTS

Fire control includes all actions of the leader and crews in planning,preparing, and actually applying fire on a target. It is the ability to select and designate targets, open fire at the instant desired, adjust fire, regulate the rate of fire, shift from one target to another, and cease fire.

Fire control depends upon the ability of the leader and the discipline and training of the crew. Failure to exercise fire control results in ineffective employment of the gun and can result in danger to friendly troops, loss of surprise, premature disclosure of positions, fire on unimportant targets, loss of time in adjusting fire, and wasted ammunition.

METHODS OF FIRE CONTROL

The noise and confusion of battle may limit the use of some of these methods; therefore, the leader must select a method or combination of methods that will best accomplish the mission.

Oral. This is an effective method of control, but at times the leader may be too far away from the crews, or the noise of battle may make it impossible for the crews to hear him.

Arrn-and-Hand Signals. This is an effective method when the crews can see the leader. All crew members must understand the standard arm-and-hand signals.

Prearranged Signals. These are either visual or sound signals such as pyrotechnics or blasts on a whistle- These signals should be included in standing operating procedures and must be understood by all squad members.

Personal Contact♦ In many situations, the leader must move to individual crew members to issue orders. This method of control is used more than any other by small-unit leaders. The leader must use maximum cover and concealment to keep from disclosing the position.

Standing Operating Procedures. SOPs are actions to be executed without command. SOPs are developed during the training of the gun crews. Their use eliminates many commands and simplifies the leader's job of fire control.

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment