Zeroing An M60 Machine

SET SIGHTS FIRE 3 ROUNDS CORRECT FOR DEFLECTION CORRECT FOR ELEVATION CONFIRM

ADJUST RANGE PLATE AND RECORD DEFLECTION ZERO

REAR SJGHT MOCKUP

CONDUCT OF BIPOD INSTRUCTION

The unit is assembled and instructed on the objectives and fundamentals, fire commands used on the basic range, basic machinegun marksmanship target, analyzing and scoring the target, and the following:

Course of Fire. Bipod firing on the basic range consists of firing 42 rounds as described in BASIC (10 METER) MARKSMANSHIP-BIPOD FIRING,

Prefire Checks.Before any gun is fired, all prefire checks are performed as described in chapter 6, This procedure should be explained and demonstrated.

Clearing the Machinegun.The procedure for clearing the gun as outlined in appendix C must be explained and demonstrated to the gunners.

The gunner zeroes by firing three rounds at paster 1 and his confirming rounds at paster 2,

The gunner then fires six belts of six rounds each at pasters 3, 4T 5, 6, 7, and 8. He attempts to fire a six-round burst into each of the scoring spaces. A fire command is given for zeroing and for firing each belt of six rounds.

Assistant Gunner's Duties. In bipod firing, the assistant gunner lies beside and to the left of the gunner. His duties include the following:

• Assisting the gunner during prefire checks*

• Checking the gunner's position and grip.

BASIC (10-METER) MARKSMANSHIP—BIPOD FIRING

TIME

ROUNDS PER MAN

TARGET

TYPE AMMO

TYPE FIRE

no limit

6

basic machinegun pasters 1 and 2

ball

zeroing {single rds)

no limit

6

basic machinegun paster 3

ball

fixed-one burst

no limit

6

basic machinegun paster 4

ball

fixed—one burst

no limit

6

basic machinegun paster 5

ball

fixed—one burst

no limit

6

basic machinegun paster 6

ball

fixed-one burst

no limit

6

basic machinegun paster 7

ball

fixed—one burst

no limit

6

basic machinegun paster 8

ball

fixed-one burst

total

42

• Assisting in loading.

• Relaying the READY signal when he gets an UP from the gunner.

• Assisting in zeroing.

• Pointing out gunner errors, such as failing to repeat the elements of the fire commands, firing an incorrect exercise, or failing to clear the gun.

• Assisting in the observation and adjustment of fire.

Organization for Firing. The unit is organized into five equal groups for firing. Each group is divided into two orders. One order becomes gunners, and the other mder becomes assistant gunners.

Firing. The gunners and assistant gunners at each position set up their guns and perform pre fire checks.

The gunner assumes the correct position and aims at paster 1. The assistant gunner checks the gunners position and has him describe his sight alinement and sight picture.

The gunner is then given fire commands that require him to place range settings on the rear-sight assembly. This is done to practice moving the rear-sight slide and setting the range. The assistant gunner checks the range settings for correctness and points out any errors.

On command, the first order zeros.

At the completion of zeroing, individual fire commands are given to require the gunners to engage each of the six remaining numbered scoring spaces. Time is allowed between bursts to permit gunners to observe and adjust their fire.

After the first order has fired, the second order fires the course in the same manner.

After both orders have fired, the guns are cleared.

After the guns have been cleared, both orders move to the target line, where they analyze and score their targets.

The firing is critiqued by instructors.

TRIPOD TRAINING

Basic marksmanship training with the tripod mount is the first step in qualification and is a continuation of training with the bipod. The gunner is taught techniques applicable to the tripod-mounted gun. He then applies them during manipulation and dry-fire exercises, and during practice and record firing on the basic (10-mptpr) rnngp.

Training requirements for tripod instructional and record firing are the same as for the bipod phase with the exception that one tripod mount, a traversing and elevating mechanism, and a pintle assembly are required for each gun for tripod firing.

OBJECTIVES

The four objectives of training with the tripod, as noted, are generally the same as those of training with the bipod. However, the techniques of application are somewhat" different in achieving the objectives with the tripod.

Obtain an Accurate Initial Burst. To get an accurate initial burst with the tripod-mounted gun, the fundamentals of position and grip, sight alinement and sight picture, trigger manipulation, and zeroing must be properly applied.

Position and Grip

The gunner gets into a prone position behind the gun, so that a straight line drawn through the gun would go through his right shoulder and his right hip pocket.

He spreads his legs a comfortable distance apart, with his heels down.

PRONE POSITION (TRIPOD)

Soldier Prone Clipart

He grasps the trigger-mechanism group with his right hand, index finger resting lightly on the trigger.

With his left hand, palm down, he grasps the elevating hand wheel. He exerts a firm downward pressure with both hands while aiming and firing.

He rests his cheek lightly (if at all) against the cover.

He puts his elbows lightly against the stock, but he does not apply any pressure (shoulder rest is not used).

He has his shoulder lightly against the stock, but he does not apply any pressure (shoulder rest is not used).

Sight Alinement/Sight Picture Trigger Manipulation, and Zeroing

Sight Alinement/Sight Picture Trigger Manipulation, and Zeroing, These aspects of obtaining an accurate initial burst are the same for tripod training as discussed for bipod training.

Traverse and Search the Machinegun.

All changes, or manipulations, on the tripod-mounted gun are made with the left hand. Changes in direction are made first, and then changes in elevation are made. The manipulations are traverse, search, and traverse and search. (Traverse refers to changes in direction,) {Search refers to changes in elevation.)

To move the muzzle of the gun to the right, the gunner puts his left hand on the traversing hand wheel, thumb up, and pushes his thumb away from his body (PUSH KIGHT),

To move the muzzle to the left, the gunner pulls his thumb toward his body (PULL LEFT).

To move the muzzle up, the gunner grasps the elevating handwheel with his left hand and pushes his thumb away from his body (PUSH ADD).

To move the muzzle down, he pulls his thumb toward his body (PULL DROP).

Observe and Adjust Fire♦ Gunners, with the help of the assistant gunner, must learn to observe and rapidly adjust their fire. To adjust fire when firing the tripod-mounted gun, the gunner makes adjustments by manipulating the traversing and elevating handwheels, A 1-click adjustment on either handwheel equals a 1-mil change and will move the strike of the round 1 centimeter (the width or height of the black aiming paster) on the 10-meter range. A rapid check of the sight picture is made after each traversing and searching adjustment.

Operate with Speed. As in bipod training, gunners using the tripod-mounted gun must be able to deliver fire on a target with speed, but they must first be proficient in the first three objectives. The only timed exercises are record practice firing and record firing,

MOUNTING AND EMPLACING THE

MACHINEGUN

For accurate delivery of fire, the gun must be properly mounted and emplaced.

TO MOUNT THE MACHINEGUN:

Place the tripod mount on the ground with the front leg pointing toward the center of the target.

Place the pintle in the pintle bushing and lock it-

Place the gun on the mount.

Center the traversing and elevating mechanism and clamp the left edge of the traversing slide on the zero graduation on the traversing bar-

TO EMPLACE THE MACHINEGUN:

Aline the gun and the tripod mount for direction by shifting the rear legs until the gun is pointing at the center of the target.

Ijoosen the dirt around and under the tripod shoes and firmly em place the shoes in the ground-

If the traversing bar is not level, remove enough dirt from under the rear shoes to level it. Make sure that only the tripod shoes, and not the legs, are in contact with the ground. Also make sure that dirt is removed from under the traversing bar so that the slide can be moved freelv across the bar.

ANALYZING AND SCORING THE TARGET AND MAINTAINING THE

SCORECARD

Targets are analyzed to determine in which fundamentals the gunners need more training. The targets are scored to determine the degree of proficiency of the gunner, and a scorecard is filled out and retained as a record.

Analyzing the Target♦ Large shot groups are usually caused by incorrect position and grip or improper emplacement of the gun.

A small initial shot group outside the first scoring space is usually caused by incorrect sight alinement, sight picture, or zero.

Subsequent bursts outside the scoring spaces are caused by a failure to properly traverse or search the gun.

Small shot groups fired continuously high, low, right, or left of each scoring space indicate a failure to observe and adjust fire properly.

Failure to complete a firing exercise on time (from lack of speed) shows a need for more training in the first three objectives.

Scoring the Target. During all firing except record firing, the gunner may score his target. Only exercises 7-8 and 5-6 are scored.

One point is given for each hit, not to exceed six in each scoring space. Holes touching the boundary between scoring spaces are hits but can be counted in only one scoring space.

A bonus of two points is given for each scoring space hit, regardless of the number of hits within the space.

When firing exercise 7-8, the 8 scoring spaces are engaged with 48 rounds. The total possible score, including bonus points, is 64. When firing exercise 5-6, the 5 spaces are engaged with 30 rounds. The total possible score, including bonus points, is 40.

The total possible score for exercises 7-8 and 5-6 is 104 points. At least 65 points are required to qualify on the basic range.

Maintaining the Scorecard. A scorecard is issued to each gunner. All scores are entered by instructors and are made in ink. No erasures are allowed.

FIRING FOR RECORD

Record firing may be conducted on the day following practice firing. It will be necessary for gunners to em pi ace and zero their machineguns. Before record firing is conducted, all soldiers (gunners and instructors) must be familiar with the time and ammunition allowances, procedures to follow in the event of a stoppage, and penalties imposed- The assistant gunner will be utilized to help observe and adjust fire-

Time and Ammunition Allowances.

Each gunner is allotted six rounds to zero. He is then given individual fire commands, and he fires four belts of six rounds at pasters 1,2, 3, and 4, for practice in firing six-round bursts. He is then allowed 50 seconds to fire 48 rounds in exercise 7-8 on command, and 40 seconds to fire 30 rounds in exercise 5-6 on command.

Stoppages. If a stoppage occurs, the gunner must apply immediate action. If the stoppage is reduced, he continues to fire the course. To complete firing the exercise, the gunner is allowed an additional 15 seconds for each application of immediate action.

If a stoppage occurs which cannot be reduced by immediate action, the gunner raises his hand and announces, TIME.

When a gunner announces, TIME, the assistant instructor notes the time, insures that a real stoppage exists, and helps the gunner reduce it- He then directs the gunner to complete firing, using the remaining time after the gunner called time, plus an additional 15 seconds.

If a stoppage is caused by an error on the part of the gunner, additional time is not permitted. The gunner then receives the score he earned before the stoppage occurred.

If it is necessary to replace the entire machinegun, the gunner is allotted six rounds to zero the new gun. He may refire the exercise.

Gunners who cannot complete firing in the time allowed (because of malfunctions) can finish the exercise in an ''alibi run" after all other gunners complete firing.

Penalties. A penalty of five points is deducted from the score of any gunner who fails to stop firing at the command or signal to cease fire.

One additional point is deducted for each round in excess of three fired after the command CEASE FIRE is given.

If a gunner fires at the wrong target or exercise, he loses the points for those rounds. A gunner whose target was fired upon by another gunner is permitted to refire the exercise.

PREPARATORY TRAINING

Instruction. Prior to conducting live-fire exercises, the unit is assembled in the bleachers and instructed in mounting and emplacing the machinegun, position and grip, and traversing and searching.

The manipulation exercise is also demonstrated to give the gunner practice in traversing and searching the gun. The basic (10-meter) range is used to conduct manipulation exercises.

Sight alinement, sight picture, trigger manipulation, zeroing, fire commands, and the basic marksmanship target are reviewed. Marksmen are made during preparatory training. No man is allowed to fire on the range until he has received thorough training in preparatory marksmanship.

For manipulation exercises and dry-fire (spotter) exercises, the unit is organized into five groups, and each group is divided into two orders: one order of gunners and one of assistant gunners.

Manipulation Exercises. Upon command, the gunner takes his position behind the gun. The assistant gunner moves to a position about 10 steps to the gunner's front and slowly moves his hand right, left, up, and down, requiring the gunner to follow these movements with the gun by manipulating the traversing and elevating handwheels.

When the gunner can traverse and search correctly and with ease, the assistant gunner becomes the gunner and the exercise is repeated.

Dry-Fire (Spotter) Exercises. The gunner takes his position behind the gun. The assistant gunner takes a position to the gunner's left.

The gunner is given a fire command. He lays on the announced paster and says, UP, to the assistant gunner when he is ready to fire.

The assistant gunner does the following:

0 Checks the gunner's sight setting and, after satisfying himself that the setting is correct, announces,

SIGHT SETTING CORRECT.

• Assumes the firing position and confirms that the sight picture is correct.

• Checks the gunner's position and grip, makes corrections if necessary* and then announces, POSITION AND GRIP CORRECT.

• Changes the lay of the gun for direction by moving the traversing handwheel not less than 5 or more than 10 clicks (mils). If the gunner is dry-firing exercise 7-8, the assistant gunner lays the gun off to the left; and when dry-firing exercise 5-6, he lays off to the right. This is to require the gunner to traverse in the direction of paster 5

or paster 7 as appropriate and to take the slack from the traversing mechanism.

• Picks up a spotter, goes to the target line, and assumes his position behind the target.

On the command, FIRE, the exercise is conducted as follows:

• The gunner re-lays and aims at paster 7 and announces, AIM.

• While he simulates firing a six-round burst, he announces, FIRE A BURST OF SIX. The assistant gunner then places the spotter in the center of paster 7.

• The gunner then raises his head to observe this fire and announces, LOOK.

• When the gunner observes the spotter in the center of paster 7, he must traverse to the right 4 clicks (4 mils) to engage the next scoring space. While he does this, he announces, RIGHT FOUR.

• He then simulates firing another six-round burst and announces, FIRE A BURST OF SIX.

• The assistant gunner places the spotter in the center of the next scoring space, and the exercise is continued in this manner until the gunner reaches the elbow of exercise 7-8. Then the gunner traverses to the right in 4-mil increments, searches up in 2-mil increments, and announces, LOOK, RIGHT FOUR, ADD TWO, throughout the remainder of the exercise.

Additional Training, For additional training, the spotter may be placed outside a given scoring space. This requires the gunner to observe and make adjustments. When the gunner sees that he has missed a scoring space with a six-round burst, he relays on the scoring space missed and splits his next six-round burst. He fires a three-round burst at the space missed and a three-round burst at the next scoring space. This is done to insure complete target coverage. The gunner announces his adjustments aloud-for example, RIGHT SIX, ADD FIVE, FIRE A BURST OF THREE.

To fire exercise 5-6, the gunner relays and aims at paster 5. If an accurate initial burst is obtained (spotter on center of black aiming paster), the gunner traverses LEFT TWO, DROP FIVE until the exercise is completed, using the same procedure as for exercise 7-8.

After conducting one exercise (7-8 or 5-6), the gunner and assistant gunner rotate duties and perform another exercise.

CONDUCT OF FIRING

Live-fire exercises give gunners practice in the fundamentals of marksmanship. During practice firing, the assistant gunner performs the same duties he performed during the dry-fire exercises, except that he does not move forward of the firing line.

Instruction* The unit is assembled in the bleachers and instructed on the courses of fire, scoring and analyzing the target, record firing procedures, and safety (app C).

Courses of Fire. The unit is organized into five groups, and each group is divided into two orders: One order of gunners and one of assistant gunners.

Practice Firing. Tripod firing (practice) on the basic range is not timed and consists of firing 108 rounds as outlined in BASIC (IOMETER) MARKSMANSHIP - TRIPOD FIRING PRACTICE TABLE,

The gunner and assistant gunner at each machinegun position set up their gun and perform the prefire checks.

Each gunner is issued 6 single rounds, 4 belts of 6 rounds, I belt of 48 rounds, and 1 belt of 30 rounds.

The gunner zeroes.

Fire commands are given, requiring the gunner to fire four belts of six rounds each at pasters 1, 2, 3, and 4 to give him additional practice in firing six-round bursts.

The gunner is then commanded to fire the 48-round belt in exercise 7-8; he tries to place a six-round burst in each of the eight scoring spaces.

The gunner is then commanded to fire the 30-round belt in exercise 5-7; he tries to place a six-round burst in each of the eight scoring spaces-

The machinegun is cleared, and the gunner moves to the target line to score and analyze his target. While the gunners are scoring and analyzing their targets, assistant instructors critique each gunner individually.

After the scoring, analysis, and critique of the first order, the gunner and assistant gunner change over and the second order fires the exercises.

Record Practice Firing. This is a timed exercise to practice operating with speed and to familiarize the gunner with record firing procedures. This firing immediately follows practice firing and consists of firing 78 rounds as outlined in BASIC (IO METER) MARKSMANSHIP TRIPOD FIRING, RECORD PRACTICE.

The gunner has 50 seconds to fire exercise 7-8 and 40 seconds to fire exercise 5-6.

During this firing, the assistant gunner performs no checks.

BASIC {10-METER) MARKSMANSHIP TRIPOD FIRING PRACTICE

TIME

ROUNDS PER MAN

TARGET

TYPE AMMO

TYPE FIRE

no umit

6

basic machinegun pasters 1 and 2

ball

zeroing (single rds)

no umit

■ '

24

basic machinegun pasters 1, 2. 3

ball

fixed (four bursts of six rounds each}

no limit

48

basic machinegun exercise 7-8

ball

traverse and search (six-round bursts at each scoring space)

no umit

30

basic machinegun exercise 5-6

ball

traverse and search (six-round bursts at each scoring space)

total

108

Before each exercise is fired, instructors lay the machineguns off for direction (to the left of paster 7 when firing 7-8, and to the right of paster 5 when firing 5-6),

The assistant gunner must observe the control tower or other control personnel, such as flagmen, to insure that the gunner cease fire on command. He taps the gunner on the back when he gets the cease fire signal.

Record Firing. This firing is conducted on a day following practice firing and consists of firing 108 rounds as outlined in BASIC (IOMETER) MARKSMANSHIP-TRIPOD FIRING, RECORD.

BASIC (IO METER) MARKSMANSHIP TRIPOD FIRING, RECORD PRACTICE

TIME (SEC)

ROUNDS PER MAN

TARGET

TYPE AMMO

TYPE FIRE

so

48

basic machinegun exercise 7-6

ball

traverse and search (six-round bursts at each scoring space)

40

30

basic machinegun exercise 5-6

ball

traverse and search (six-round bursts at each scoring space}

total

78

The unit is organized into five groups, and each group is divided into two orders. Each group should be assigned a minimum of two assistant instructors to insure that proper guidance is given each student.

The gunners and assistant gunners emplace their machineguns and perform the prefire checks.

The first order zeros the guns.

After zeroing, the left half of each group fires for record, and the right half of each group dry-fires the course BASIC (IOMETER) MARKSMANSHIP TRIPOD FIRING, RECORD.

Then the right half of each group fires for record, and the left half of each group dry-fires the course.

After the first order has fired, the gunners and assistants change over, and the second order zeros and fires for record.

On completion of all firing, the firing line is cleared and instructors score the targets, record the scores, and conduct a final critique-

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