Transition Range

750 METERS

weather, electrical target devices may malfunction. If this happens, a minimum of five of the eight targets must work in each lane to run qualification. Three targets may be shown twice.

Target Control Points. Whether the targets are operated electrically or manually, each lane must have a control point about 10 meters behind the firing line to control raising and lowering the targets and to facilitate scoring.

Instruction Site. Bleachers are desirable to the rear of the firing line.

Control Tower. An elevated platform or control tower is desirable, centrally located to the rear of the firing line to control the firing line-

Concurrent Training Areas. At least three concurrent training areas are desirable, located 500 to 800 meters behind the firing line. Each of these areas must have room to seat approximately 75 soldiers.

The following personnel are necessary for operation and control of the transition range:

One officer in charge.

One principal instructor.

One safety officer.

One alternate principal instructor.

One NCO in charge*

One assistant instructor per 10 soldiers.

One group instructor per 40 to 50 soldiers.

Two demonstrators (one gunner and one assistant gunner).

One ammunition NCO.

Ordnance personnel. Medical personnel.

The following equipment is necessary for operation and control of the transition range:

One public address system.

Three machineguns per lane.

One cleaning rod per assistant instructor.

One screwdriver per lane.

Twelve stopwatches (two in the control tower and two per group instructor)-

One scorecard per soldier—DA Form 85 (the same scorecard is used on the transition range and on the basic range).

The following display charts will aid in instruction on the transition range:

• Training Aids and Devices (Firing Line).

Adjusted Aiming Point-Cone of Fire. Beaten Zone-

Mil Relation.

FIELD ZEROING

Gunners must be taught how to zero the gun at long ranges.

When field zeroing, a target between 300 and 700 meters should be selected. Range graduations on the rear-sight assembly of the M60 machinegun begin at 300 meters, making it impossible to place a lesser range setting on the rear sight. At ranges greater than 700 meters, it would be difficult to determine where the center of the beaten zone is falling in relation to the target.

After determining the range to the target-on which he is going to zero, the gunner indexes this range on the rear-sight assembly anrl alines the windage index (zero windage). The 500-meter target on the transition range is recommended because of the ease of determining deflection adjustments at that range-

The gunner fires a six- to nine round burst at the center base of the target and notes where the burst hits.

The gunner then makes any necessary corrections for direction. One click or 1 mil on the windage knob moves the line of aim 1 meter at 1,000 meters. He makes corrections for deflection by moving the rear sight the necessary number of clicks in the direction of the target. For example, if the gunner is zeroing at a range of 500 meters, and the center of the beaten zone is 1 meter to the left of the target, he will move the rear sight 2 clicks (mils) in the opposite direction (to the right).

MIL RELATION

Mil 1000 Meters

The gunner estimates how high or low the center of the beaten zone is in relation to the target and makes elevation changes accordingly. Because determining that relationship is difficult, gunners will have to rely on trial and error until they gain sufficient experience to make reliable estimates.

After correcting for deflection and elevation, the gunner fires a confirming burst. If his adjustments are correct, he then adjusts the elevation scale to reflect the range to the target.

If the gunner does not hit the target with the confirming burst, he repeats the procedure, treating each subsequent burst as if it were the initial burst.

EFFECTS OF WIND

Gunners must learn that wind will alter the normal strike of the beaten zone. The beaten zone will be shifted in the direction that the wind is blowing.

The following table shows the approximate shift in impact for a 10 mph wind from 3 or 9 o'clock.

RANGE (METERS)

WIND DRIFT (Mils)

500

2

700

3

900

4

1100

6

Stronger winds will show a proportionately greater effect. For example, a 20 mph wind will shift the strike of the beaten zone double the amounts shown.

ADJUSTED-AIMING-POINT METHOD OF FIRE ADJUSTMENT

Gunners should try for an accurate initial burst. However, the initial burst may not always be accurate; therefore, gunners must have a means of rapidly and accurately

ADJUSTED-AIMING-POINT METHOD

OF FIRE ADJUSTMENT

adjusting their fire onto the target without making sight adjustments.

If the gunner misses the target with his initial burst, he must select a new aiming point the same distance from the target as the center of impact of the initial burst, but in the opposite direction, and fire a second burst,

CONCURRENT TRAINING

The unit is assembled in one location (bleachers preferred) and instructed in the following:

BASIC MARKSMANSHIP FIRING—TRANSITION RANGE,

PRACTICE OR RECORD

RANGE

TIME (MIN)

RDS PER INOV

TARGET

TYPE AMMO

TYPE FIRE

400-700 meters

no limit

20

one double "e" silhouette between 400 and 700 meters.

4-1

zeroing (two to three six to nine-round bursts.

400-800 meters

4

120

eight double "e" silhouettes

4-1

fixed (a maximum of two bursts allowed at each target»

total

(140 practice. 140 record)

• Target detection techniques (FM 23-9, chap 6).

• Position and grip with the bipod-mounted machinegun.

• Characteristics of fire, to include trajectory, cone of fire, and beaten zone.

• Field zeroing at long ranges.

• Range determination.

• Adjusted-aiming-point method of fire adjustment.

At the completion of the instruction, the unit is divided into equal groups. One group stays on the firing line; the others go to concurrent training stations.

The county fair system of movement through concurrent training stations is recommended. Subjects covered in concurrent training stations should be related to the machinegun. Recommended subjects and a list of personnel, equipment, and training aids necessary for conduct of concurrent training instruction are as follows:

Concurrent Training Station for General or Detailed Disassembly and Assembly.

# Personnel

One NCO in charge.

One principal instructor.

One alternate principal instructor-

One group instructor per 10 soldiers.

# Equipment

One public address system-

One complete tripod-mounted machinegun per two soldiers.

# Training Aids and Devices

One nomenclature mat.

One belt of six dummy rounds per gun.

Concurrent Training Station for Direction and Elevation Readings.

# Personnel

One principal instructor•

MACHINEGUN TRANSITION RANGE ORGANIZATION

200 Meter Zero Target

200 METER MINIMUM

CONCURRENT TRAINING STATIONS

200 METER MINIMUM

CONCURRENT TRAINING STATIONS

500 METER MAXIMUM

500 METER MAXIMUM

One alternate principal instructor.

One demonstrator.

One group instructor per 10 soldiers.

Equipment

One public address system.

One complete tripod-mounted machinegun.

One traversing and elevating mechanism per soldier.

SIX-ROUND BELT OF AMMUNITION

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