Basic Problems Identified

Pump Shotgun Silhouette

Following a gradual decline in rifle marksmanship performance over several years, the average soldier in the late 1970s could hit only 55 percent of stationary personnel targets from distances between 50m and 300m.5 ARI began to tackle this problem by defining the rifle defeatable combat threat,6 by examining previous marksmanship research,7 and by investigating existing and alternative training procedures.8,9 These initial efforts defined the rifle defeatable threat as being briefly TabIe j...

Moving Target Engagement Training Aids

Aid to Improved Marksmanship AIM book was developed by ARI to teach and reinforce aiming skills, particularly adjusted aiming ,1 points for moving targets and for the effects of wind and gravity. The AIM book consists of multiple sets of parallel photographic targets, each set printed on separate pages in the book. The right hand target in each set is covered by a flap. The Dry Fire Moving Target Engagement Trainer DRY MOVER was developed to teach soldiers how to smoothly track and lead moving...

Weaponeer

Weaponeer Marksmanship Trainer

The Weaponeer is the granddaddy of all rifle marksmanship simulators and it was the first to be involved in ARI research. It is considered to be a full-task trainer, as it can simulate the noise and recoil of firing. Although the original Weaponeer presented only stationary targets, later models included moving targets as well. On its operator console, a replay of up to three seconds of barrel movement before firing can be displayed. This feature allows an instructor to diagnose errors in a...

Training Support Products

Marksmanship Principles

The process of implementing new methods of conducting basic, advanced, and unit rifle marksmanship training was an enormous undertaking, involving much more than simply providing new programs of instruction to Army trainers.' This section highlights a diverse array of ARI products developed to support the new training programs and to help insure the success of the implementation process after we had left. A more exhaustive listing of these products has been published...

Moving Target Engagement

Of the five subjects taught in the revised ARM training program, more research has been devoted to issues surrounding moving target engagement than any other. This relatively greater emphasis was partly due to the fact that an ongoing range modernization program would soon enable soldiers to engage moving personnel targets with live fire. Rifle marksmanship simulators of the era were also beginning to feature moving targets for the first time. Previous doctrine Field Manual 23-9 of 1974...

Shooting with Thermal Sights

Thermal sights are not new to the Infantry, being integral to antitank weapons and the Bradley Fighting Vehicle. But they are new to most Light Weapons Infantrymen. These soldiers must now be taught how to make all the necessary adjustments to their thermal sights. In contrast to using aiming lights, targets equipped with thermal blankets are much easier to detect with thermal sights. ARI training assessments conducted with thermal sights involved the use of a borelight to boresight the thermal...

Superdart Projectile Location System

When positioned at the base of a target on a live firing range, the Superdart system electronically detects and locates supersonic projectiles passing overhead. The Positioned at the base of a silhouette target A on a pop-up mechanism B , the Superdart system's detector bar C senses a supersonic projectile D passing overhead. The projectile's Shockwave E is triangulated from three sensors F, G, amp H , while a fourth sensor I helps to calculate projectile velocity. Locations of hits and misses...

Simulation Training Strategy

Three new or upgraded marksmanship training devices are expected to be introduced within the near future. These devices are the MACS 2000, EST 2000, and LMTS see Chapter 2 . Each has its own unique set of advantages within an overall training program. Though a part-task trainer, MACS probably has the best instructional design features and doesn't require the constant presence of an instructor. EST provides training on the widest range of marksmanship tasks, including collective ones. Finally,...

Training Devices and Simulation

ARI has long recognized the difficulty of providing precise and timely performance feedback to soldiers in rifle marksmanship training. To partially address this problem, ARI began to investigate the potential benefits of a variety of marksmanship training devices and simulators in the early 1980s. Since that time ARI research efforts have focused largely on five training systems the Superdart projectile location system Australasian Training Aids , Weaponeer Spartanics , Multipurpose Arcade...

Engagement Skills Trainer

Unlike Weaponeer or MACS, the Engagement Skills Trainer EST can accommodate the simultaneous firing of up to 12 soldiers. Thus, it can provide both individual rifle marksmanship training and some squad-level collective training. The EST uses a combination of analog and digital video, synchronized image projection, laser hit detection, and microcomputer technology to display a variety of target arrays and courses of fire on an 8 ft high x 30 ft wide screen.38 Like the Weaponeer, the EST is...

Shooting with Aiming Lights and Night Vision Goggles

Borelight Target Silohette

A common perception about aiming lights is that all you need to do is point and shoot. Although aiming lights do provide a point and shoot capability, unless soldiers are properly trained, most likely they will point and miss. . ' The Equipment. The beams of the aiming lights we examined are not visible to the human eye they can only be seen through NVGs or other image intensification I2 devices. Hitting targets requires that both the aiming light and the NVGs be properly adjusted....

Multipurpose Arcade Combat Simulator

ARI began developing the Multipurpose Arcade Combat Simulator MACS in 1982, in the era of the first microcomputers. The key discovery in this development process was that a light pen fitted with a converging lens system could be focused to read the raster scan on a video monitor at distances from 4 to 20 ft. This led to the realization that relatively inexpensive trainers could be designed for a variety of weapon systems, by attaching a light pen to a weapon and then engaging...

Shooting Straight Years Of Rifle Marksmanship Research

ARI has produced a rich history of rifle marksmanship research and related research products spanning more than two decades. Based on growing concerns that rifle marksmanship training was not producing qualified marksmen for U.S. Army units, ARI began a systematic examination of basic, advanced, and unit marksmanship training programs in 1977.1 After developing and implementing a series of improved marksmanship training programs in the early 1980s under the joint sponsorship of the U.S. Army...