The process of implementing new methods of conducting basic, advanced, and unit rifle marksmanship training was an enormous undertaking, involving much more than simply providing new programs of instruction to Army trainers.' This section highlights a diverse array of ARI products developed to support the new training programs and to help insure the success of the implementation process after we had left. A more exhaustive listing of these products has been published previously,1 as have ratings of all previously existing marksmanship training support items.20 ARI work related to marksmanship training devices and simulators is presented in Chapter 2.
Targets. ARI designed more than a dozen paper targets to support the new M16A1 rifle marksmanship training programs.1 Though not shown to scale, some of them are pictured in this report. These targets were officially adopted by the proponent, assigned National Stock Numbers, and became available to ATCs and all units through normal supply channels in the mid-1980s. More recently, these targets have been modified for use with the M16A2 rifle and M4 carbine, though most of their instructional features have changed very little over time.
Graphic Training Aids. Graphic training aids include items such as charts, diagrams, posters, slides, and transparencies that can be used in a classroom or on a firing range. Before the new BRM program was implemented, ARI provided written and verbal input to marksmanship instructors and to the Training and Audiovisual Support Center (TASC) at Fort Benning. This input led to the production of a set of graphic training aids to support each of the new program's 14 periods of instruction.1 Some of the marksmanship topics taught with graphic training aids were the Four Fundamentals of Rifle Marksmanship, the Zero Target, Correct Sight Picture, the Effects of Gravity on Bullets, and Adjusted Point of Aim. Using materials developed at Fort Benning as a standardized guide, other ATCs were able to produce them locally. A similar process was used in developing a set of graphic training aids for the ARM program.16
Instructor Training Materials. Two reference guides were developed to provide training guidance to rifle marksmanship instructors. In addition to providing extensive consultation to USAIS during its substantial revision of Field Manual 23-9, the Basic Rifle Marksmanship Trainer's Guide was prepared, evaluated, refined, and then fielded throughout the Army.24 A more comprehensive reference published as Field Circular 23-11, the Unit Rifle Marksmanship Training Guide was devoted to both basic and advanced marksmanship skills, as well as to unit collective training.21 22 In conjunction with U.S. Army Infantry Center Educational Television personnel, a set of two videotapes were produced to help trainers understand the instructional principles underlying the new program and to help them develop better diagnostic and coaching skills.25 26
BRM Shooter's Book. This pocket-sized book was developed for use by initial entry soldiers.27 Its purpose was twofold. First, it provided each soldier with a handy reference to read and study, giving ready answers to most questions that could potentially arise during each period of BRM instruction. Second, it allowed soldiers to record their individual marksmanship performance and progress during training. Reduced copies of all BRM paper targets were included so soldiers could record the locations of their hits and misses. Scorecards were provided for all periods in which pop-up targets were used. It was thought that more effective remedial and reinforcement training could be given to soldiers when they had kept accurate records in their shooter's book.27
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