No. 2, Model 1881, the first repeater. It was made in a series of three, for 40 60 260, 45 70 405, and 45-85-285, all, in their day, considered powerful cartridges. This model was discontinued and superseded by
No. 3, Model 1889. In this model the opening for ejection of shells was changed from the top to the right side of the frame, leaving the top solid to prevent the entrance of objectionable matter. The gate in the frame, which in the model 1881 was a sliding one, now was hinged at the rear. Ammunition for this model ran from 32-20 to 44-40, and included the two very popular cartridges invented by the Marlin Co., the 32-40 and the 38-55. This model was discontinued about 1900.
No. 4, shows the newly designed side opening in the frame, thereafter used on all Marlin lever action repeaters, and also shows the catch below the frame for retaining the guard lever; an awkward device omitted from later models.
No. 5, Model 1891. This model, using .22 and .32 rim fire cartridges, had as its noteworthy feature a removable plate, or lid, on the right side of the frame, to give access to the mechanism. The thumb-screw showing above the junction of the lever permitted quick loosing and fastening. Model 1891 was soon
Plate 41.—Marlin Rifles
Plate 42.—Marlin Rifles discontinued and was superseded by Model 1892, like it except for a few improvements simplifying the action. From this time on the external appearance of lever action Marlins remained practically the same, making pictures unnecessary. The interest centers in the slight changes in the mechanism which tended towards simplification or adapted the various arms to cartridges of varying lengths or power.
No. 1 shows the mechanism, open, of the Model
No. 2 shows it closed.
No. 3 shows the mechanism, open, of Models
1893, 1894, and 1895; and
No. 4 shows the various parts in the closed position.
No. 5 Model 1897, " take down," came apart, as shown, in a manner different from its predecessors.
No. 6 and No. 7 illustrate the method, in this arm, of securing the moving parts.
No. 8 illustrates the trombone action Marlins, a series using various calibres of cartridges. Marlin sporting arms were discontinued during the war, to permit full time to be given to air-plane machine rifles for the U. S.
The Newton Arms Corporation, established in 1919, succeeded the Newton Arms Company, of Buffalo, New York, the crcation in 1914 of Charles Newton, Esq., a lawyer by profession and an enthusiast upon modern arms and ammunition.
Before beginning to make rifles Mr. Newton developed ammunition, designing first the 32-40 high power cartridge, then the Savage " 22 Hi-power,M then the Savage " 25-3000.':1 These last two cartridges came on the market about 1912.
With the development of the Newton Series, — .22, .256, .30, and .35, Mr. Newton decided to enter the firearms and ammunition business. The rifles which he purposed furnishing to sportsmen who desired, in connection with small calibre, accuracy combined with extra high speed and shocking power, were to be Mausers, bored, rifled and chambered for the ammunition of his own design. The war prevented the importation of Mausers, and the Newton Rifle, of his design and manufacture, was the natural outcome.
The Newton Rifle, first issued in 1917, is a modified and improved Mauser. Its notable features are smooth outline, new take-down device, new method of releasing the bolt by trigger action, new design of set trigger, and reinforced grip to minimize accidental breakage. These features in the arm in combination with ammunition of the most up-to-date type form a combination that appeals strongly both to the big game hunter and the target shooter.
The Newton catalogue is a miniature encyclopaedia of that sort of interesting and not too technical information which is helpful to the average rifleman.
During 1919 the Newrton Arms Corporation succeeded the former company.
No. 1, A and By The " bicycle rifle n when collapsed is only 1S| inches long; its weight is only about two pounds. It is made entirely of steel — or iron — and is furnished either all nickeled or all blued. It uses .22 cartridges only.
No. 2, A and B, \ The " safety car- I % tridge rifle," has oyk the same sort of breech device, and | also uses only .22 \ ammunition, but differs from the bicycle rifle in having a fixed wooden stock.
H. M. Quakenbush, Herkimer, N. Y factures two types of miniature rifles.
The Remington Arms Company was founded by Eliphalet Remington, 2d, in 1816. Father and son of the same name, blacksmiths, working together, and natives of Connecticut, had settled some years earlier in llion Gorge, New York. According to tradition k was there that the boy Eli 2d, lacking funds with which to buy a-rifle, made one himself. His neighbors, seeing that it was a good gun, became customers. Blacksmithing being an intermittent business, and rifle making offering prospects of steady work, the two Remingtons added to their smithy a forge and grinding shop operated by water power from the adjacent brook. The new business grew fast.
Twelve years later the father died and left the business to Eli 2d, wrho promptly moved to new and larger quarters. He made a further increase to his business by beginning immediately to supply rifles and rifle parts wholesale, the latter to gunsmiths near and far, the former to stores in all towns and cities within hundreds of miles. Many a country gunsmith or town or city merchant stamped his name on the top of a barrel wrhich bore also " E. Remington " on its under side.
About 1845 Philo Remington, son of Eliphalet 2d, became a partner, and the firm adopted the name " E. Remington & Son." During 1846 or 1847, while the Mexican War was in progress, the new firm purchased the contract between the U. S. Government
* Eliphalet Remington. 2d born 1793; died April 12, 1861.
and N. P. Ames & Co. of Springfield, Mass., for several thousand Jenks carbines. This contract marked the beginning of Remington business on a large scale.
In 1856 the terminal of the firm's name was changed from Son to Sons, the three sons being Philo, Samuel, and Eliphalet. 3d. Prosperity was soon increased by government orders for 12,500 military rifles of Model 1841 pattern.
Eliphalet Remington 2d died in 1861, the first year of the Civil War. The firm name and business was continued by the three sons. During the four years of the war the firm produced many thousands-of military rifles for the armies of the North.
In 1865 the partnership was succeeded by a corporation of the same name, which, realizing that the era of the muzzle loader had passed, voted to attempt the production of metallic cartridge breech loaders. For this end it engaged John Rider, a famous arms inventor of the time. At the Remington factory Mr. Rider developed the rolling block action backed up by the hammer which was named the " Remington System." The U. S. Navy in 1867 ordered 12,000 of these new rifles, and soon thereafter the demands of our militia and of foreign governments kept the factory7 running to its extreme capacity day and night. The business employed nearly 2,000 persons and soon produced a million Remington System rifles.
Meantime repeating rifles attained wide use and the popularity of single shot rifles waned. To keep abreast of the times the firm tried many repeating systems in rapid succession without hitting on a good one until it took up the bolt action repeater of James Paris Lee. With the Remington-Lee the firm repeated the big business that it had done with the Rider rifle, and became very wealthy.
Between the approximate dates of 1870 and 1885 the Remingtons tried a great many unproved designs in guns, rifles and pistols, making each in small quantities; more kinds, probably, than any other arms makers in existence; nearly all of these arms were commercial failures. Moreover the arms business was grafted with numerous unrelated side issues, such as the manufacture of agricultural implements, sewing machines, cotton gins, electric light machinery, typewrriters, etc. In 1886 failure was the result.
The business was continued and the name kept, but control passed to Hartley & Graham, of New York. After reorganization the name became " The Remington Arms Company." Hartley & Graham thus became the controlling influence in three sorts of business, as they previously were merchants in sporting goods, and part owners of the Union Metallic Cartridge Company, of Bridgeport, Conn. Mar-cellus Hartley was the dominant spirit of the firm.
At the death of Marcellus Hartley, in 1902, his grandson, Marcellus Hartley Dodge, consolidated the gun and the ammunition business under the name of " The Remington-U. M. C. Co." With the outbreak of the World War in 1917, Mr. Dodge attempted building and operating the greatest ammunition and small arms plant in the world. To this end an enormous tract of land in Bridgeport was covered with new buildings, and contracts were made wfith foreign governments for the delivery at specified dates of both arms and ammunition in quantities without precedent. Unforeseen events caused failure. At present a very small portion of the enormous plant is producing sporting arms.
Pictures and descriptions of obsolete Remington rifles are scattered through the text. Those of the present day follow.
Modern Remington rifles are issued in 6 models and to each model a series, indicated in the Remington catalogue by a letter following the model number. Thus, Model 8 has in its series 5 rifles all possessing the Model 8 features but differing from each other in finish, ornamentation and price.
No. i, Model 4. Single shot, calibres .22 and 25-10 Stevens, .32 long and short r.f. Has the old Remington-Rider breech action. Take down. Barrel length 22\ inches. Weight pounds.
No. 2} Model 4-5. A variant of the Model 4 called the Military Model. Made in .22 calibre only. Barrel length 28 inches. Weight 5 pounds.
No. J, Model 6. Single shot, calibres .22 and .32 r.f. The breech action is a modification of that of Model 4. Take down. Barrel length 20 inches. Weight 3£ to 4 pounds.
No. 4y Model 8-A. The standard plain rifle of this series is Model 8-A. Autoloading, high power, box magazine. Uses only .25, .30, .32 and .35 Remington ammunition. The barrel, surrounded by a jacket, moves lengthwise, actuated rearward by recoil and forward by a spring; the barrel movement operates the mechanism. Take down. Barrel length 22 inches. Weight 7f pounds. The magazine holds 5 cartridges which can be inserted singly or all 5 in a clip.
These vary from Model 8-A, the plain, standard arm described above, in the quality of the wood, the kind and amount of the ornamentation, and the price.
No. 5, Model 12-A. The standard plain rifle of this series is Model 12-A. Trombone action .22 calibre repeater with tubular magazine below barrel. This rifle handles .22 short, .22 long and .22 long rifle cartridges. Barrel length 22 inches. Weight 4§ pounds.
Model 12-B, Gallery Special, for .22 short only. Barrel length 24. Weight 54.
Model 12-C, Target Grade, used all 3 cartridges. Barrel length 24. Weight 5J.
Model 12-C, N. R. A. Target Grade, uses .22 1. r. only. Special sights. Barrel length 24. Weight 6.
Model 12-CS, Special Grade, uses .22 W. R. F. only. Barrel length 24. Weight 6.
Model 8-C Model 8-D Model 8-E Model 8-F
Model 12-D, Peerless Grade, uses all 3 cartridges. Fancy p.g. stock, engraved metal. Barrel length 24. Weight 5J.
Model 12-D5, like Model 12-D except that it uses .22 W. R. F. only.
Model 12-E, Expert Grade, more ornamental than Model 12-D, otherwise similar.
Model 12-ES, like Model 12-E except that it uses .22 W.R.F. only.
Model 12-F, Premier Grade more ornamental than Model 12-E, otherwise similar.
Model 12-FS, like Model 12-F, except that it uses .22 W.R.F. onlv.
No. 6, Model 14-A. The standard plain rifle of this series is Model 14-A. Trombone action high power repeater. Take down. Same ammunition as Model 8. Tubular magazine holding 5 cartridges, Barrel length 22 inches. Weight 6f pounds.
Model 14-R carbine, sling ring on left side, shotgun butt plate. Barrel length 18| inches. Weight 6vJ- pounds.
Model 14£-A. Same mechanism as the Model 14 series. Ammunition .38 W.C.F. and .44 W.C.F.
Magazine full length.
Model 14£ R. Carbine, generally similar to 14R.
Model 14-C Model 14-D Model 14-E
These vary from the standard in the quality of the wood, the kind and amount of ornamentation, and the price.
No. 7, Model 16-A. The standard plain rifle of this series is Model 16-A. Auto loading .22 calibre repeater. Take down. Uses only the Remington autoloading .22 cartridge. Magazine in the butt holds IS cartridges. Barrel length 22. Weight 5f.
Model 16-C, Special Grade Model 16-D Peerless Grade Model 16-F Premier Grade
This series of 3 differs from 16-A, the standard, only in quality of wood, degreeof ornamentation, and price.
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