Paper Cartridge

No. 1, Merrill-Lair obe-Thomas. About 1859? This arm and the Deringer shown on Plate 31, No. 1, are remarkably similar, barring the construction of the lock and the 1855 priming magazine on this one. Breech loading. Paper cartridge, calibrc .58. Made by Remington. Throwing forward the top lever

Piston Spring Rifle

Plate 34

rotates a cylindrical shaft which is perpendicular to the axis of the bore, and brings an opening in the shaft in line with the bore. The paper cartridge is then pushed into place by a piston worked by hand against the action of a spring which withdraws the piston.

No. 2, Wesson. 1859. Frank Wesson's patent. Breech loading. Rim fire copper cartridges. The barrel is pivoted, underneath, at the forward part of the fore end so as to tip up at the breech. The early specimens had different devices for releasing the barrel, the most common of which was a stud at the left side of the frame. The empty shell was withdrawn by the fingers, no mechanical means being provided; generally a ramrod became necessary to drive the shell out.

No. 3, Wesson. 1862. This improved Frank Wesson carbine had a different barrel releasing method; trigger action instead of stud action. The amount the barrel could tip up was limited by a stud on the side of the barrel moving in a slotted loop projecting up from the frame. A hand operated extractor was provided. Marks, " Frank Wesson, Worcester, Mass." Uses the same cartridge as No. 2, a .44 rim fire.

No. 4, Gallager. 1860. Mahlon J. Gallager's patent of 1860. Marks, " Richardson & Overman Arms Co., Philadelphia, Pa." Breech loading Paper cartridge, calibre .54. Swinging the trigger guard forward moves the barrel forward.

No. 5, Spencer. 1860. Christopher M. Spencer's patent of 1860. Seven shot repeater. Magazine in butt. Metallic cartridges, rim fire, .56 calibre. This was one of the most important carbines of the Civil War.

No. 6, Henry. 1860. Tyler Henry's patent of 1860. Fifteen shot repeater. Magazine under barrel. Used .44 calibre rim fire copper cartridges, containing half ounce conical bullet and .30 grains of powder. Marks " New Haven Arms Co., New Haven, Conn." The best carbine of the Civil War.

No. 7, Allen & Wheelock. 1860. Ethan Allen's patent of 1860. Marks "Allen & Wheelock, Worcester, Mass." Single shot; Rim fire copper cartridge, calibre .44. The breech block is lowered by swinging the trigger guard forward.

No. 8t Colly Model 1860. The specimen picked for illustration has a hollow butt to be used as a cantccn; the orifice is at the comb of the butt and is closed by a screw stopper. Details already published in Volume 2.

No. 9y Enfield. Made in England at the government factory in Enfield and purchased by our government for use in the Civil War. Muzzle loading, calibre .577. The specimen shown is dated 1861; other similar specimens bear dates from 1855 to 186'4; some of them have the ramrod free, some have it attached by a swivel, and some have the forestock running almost to the muzzle. In the Civil War both the North and the South used Enfields. The charge was 55 grains of powder with a 530 grain hollow base pointed bullet.

No. 10y Merrill 1861. Embodying J. H. Merrill's various patents, this specimen including the 1861 patent. Breech loading. Paper cartridge. Calibre .54. The lever above the breech of the barrel and extending forward (shown partly raised) when swung backwards withdraws a plunger from the barrel.

No. 11, Ballard. 1861. C. H. Ballard's patent of 1861. Uses a .56 calibre rim fire cartridge. Marked " Ballard Arms Co., Fall River, Mass."

No. 12y Remington-Rider. 1861. Joseph Rider's patent of 1861. Uses a .50 calibre rim fire cartridge. Marked " Remington, Ilion, N. Y." Patent purchased by the Remingtons and Rider taken into their employ. The system, after development, became the famous Remington System. At this early stage the breech block, instead of being solid as later, is split, and the hammer strikes through the opening. Also the bearings of the breech block in this early specimen are not so strong.

Merrill Breech Loading Firearm

Austrian. During the first part of the Civil War the United States purchased a great quantity of these arms, and before their worthless-

ness became apparent a considerable number was issued. The calibre of most of them was .75; the rifling was very deep; the recoil and the trajectory were abnormal, and accuracy of shooting was conspicuous by absence.

Plate 35

No. 1, Lee. 1861. Marked 44 Lee Fire Arms Co., Milwaukee, Wis." Patented in 1862 (and reputed to have been in use a year earlier) by J. Lee, Stevens Point, Wis. Barrel swings sideways. This is probably the only Civil War carbine made in the West.

No. 2, Sharps. 1861. Sharps' patents of 1861 covered the small details of adapting his mechanism to handle metallic ammunition. The Lawrence priming magazine was of course omitted from Sharps arms using metallic cartridges.

No. 3, Howard. 1865. C. -Howard's patents of 1862 and 1865. Marked 41 Whitneyville." Others were made by G. P. Foster, Taunton, Mass. Single shot. Calibre .44 rim fire. The orifice for loading, exposed by swinging the trigger guard forward, is underneath the barrel. This carbine, like many another, is merely a sporting arm adapted to a horseman's use by means of sling attachments.

No. 4, Cosmopolitan. 1862. E. Gwyn & A. C. Campbell's patent of 1862. Marked 44 Gwyn & Campbell, Hamilton, Ohio." Called also Union, and Grapevine. Breech loading. Paper cartridge. Calibre .50.

Bethel Burton Cartridge Reloader

njmiiiwwi ^

Plate 35

No. 5, Peabody. 1862. Henry O. Peabody's patent of 1862. The first few were made with internal hammer. Metallic cartridge, single shot, rim fire, calibre .50. Marked " Providence Tool Co."

No. 6, Ball. 1863. Albert Ball's patent of 1863. Repeater, with magazine under barrel. Calibre .56, center fire metallic cartridge. Marked " E. G. L,amson Arms Co., Windsor, Vt."

No. 7, Palmer. 1863. Wm. Palmer's patent of 1863. Single shot. Rim fire, 56 calibre cartridge. Marked "E. G. Lamson Arms Co., Windsor, Vt." Bolt action, fastening at rear with a sectional screw.

1863. Marked " Joslyn Fire Arms Co., Stonington, Conn. 1864." Single shot. Rim fire, .56 calibre cartridge. The breech block swings over to the left.

1864. Proved an infringement on R. S. Lawrence's patent of 1852. Single shot. Paper cartridge. Calibre .52. The barrel rotates to the right by pressure upon the forward trigger.

No. 10, Warner. 1864. James Warner's patent of 1864. Marked " James Warner, Springfield, Mass." Single shot. Rim fire cartridge, calibre .50. Breech block swings to right. Extractor operated by drawing upon the projection beneath the barrel; not a successful method of extracting, because hand power was insufficient.

No. 11y Remington. 1864. The 1864 patent perfected the Joseph Rider invention described under No. 12, Plate 33. The breech action thus became the acme of simplicity and strength, and was used for the military arms of many nations. . .

No. 12y Triplett & Scott. 1864. Louis Triplett's patent of 1864. Repeater. Rim fire cartridge, calibre .50. Loads at the projection of the frame in front of the trigger guard. Barrel revolves on axis parallel to itself until it opens the magazine and loads. Extractor is operated by the same movement. Marked " Meriden Mfg. Co., Meridcn, Conn."

Plate 36

No. ly Winchester Model 1866. This is the first Winchester carbine. The mechanism is practically the same as that of the Henry rifle; the closed magazine loading through a gate in the frame is the principal difference. This arm has a 20-inch round barrel. The magazine holds 12 cartridges. Calibre .44 rim fire. The load was 27 grains of powder and a 200-grain flat nose bullet.

Some of the early Winchesters are represented in pictures with the opening or gate to the magazine in the left side of the frame, and, just behind it, a ring with which to attach the arm to the belt or to the saddle of the trooper. Question as to whether the picture was right or reversed.

No. 2, Evans. 1869-1871. Warren R. Evans' patent of '69 and 71. Marked " Evans Repeating


Plate 36

Rifle Co., Mechanic Falls, Me." Calibre .44, rim fire. The bull stock is built on a steel tube, which is a magazine holding 32 cartridges (some held 26), fed to the barrel by the screw-feed principle. The cartridges were introduced through the butt plate one at a time, and the breech mechanism had to be operated for each one to send it ahead. Charging the magazine being therefore a lengthy operation, the arm failed to attain popularity.

No picture. Experimental Springfield Model 1868 Pistol-carbine. A bandoned.

No. 3y Van Choate. 1870. S. F. Van Choate's patent of 1870. Bolt action. Rim fire cartridge, calibre .50. The most interesting features are positive retraction of the firing pin caused by the contact of its head with the tip of the recoil screw, and the ejection of the empty shell b}' a blow which . swings it around the hook of the extractor and out of the gun.

No. 4, Ward-Burton. 1870. Marked "Springfield, U. S." The Ward Burton system was laid before the Board of 1870, accepted for trial in the field, and a few of the carbines were made at the government armory. Calibre .50, center fire. Single shot. The bolt closes against the cartridge and is held in place by screw threads on its rear which engage with fixed threads in the receiver.

No. 5, Remington. 1870. Laid before the Board of 1870, acccptcd for trial in the field, and a few made and issued. Calibre .50.

No. 6, Remington .45. In all but calibre this arm is substantially the same as No. 5. It was adopted by the New York State Militia.

No. 7, Sharps-Borchardt^ 1870. Laid before the Board of 1870, accepted for trial in the field, and a few made and issued.

No picture. Whitney. 1870. Except for the fact that the frame is brass this arm in appearance so closely resembles the Remington that no difference would be noticeable on the exterior. In mechanism the fundamental principles are the same; some slight differences in form, and in the way the breech block is backed up by the hammer, enabled its designer, Captain Laidley, to obtain a patent. Refused by the Ordnance Board.

No. 8, Springfield Model 1870. Allin System, calibre .50, center fire. Marked 41 Springfield, U. S., Model 1870." When new all metal was polished bright.

No. 9} Brown. 1871. Single shot. Calibre .50, center fire. Bolt action. Trigger cocking. Marked " Brown Mfg. Co., Newburyport, Mass." Refused by the Ordnance Board.

No. 10, Phoenix. 1872-74. Single shot. Calibre .44, rim fire. Made by E. Whitney, Whitneyville, Conn. The claim for this carbine was that it had the fewest parts of any breech loading rifle of its time. To load, the hinged breech block was swung to the right; then drawn rearward to extract. Used by militia.

No picture. Ward-Burton Repealer. 1872. Similar in appearance to the Ward-Burton single shot except for a magazine beneath the barrel. The magazine was charged from below by drawing back the bolt, which raised the carrier and exposed the opening into the magazine. Refused by the Board of 1872.

Refer to No. 8. SpringOeld Model 1873. In a small scale illustration there is little difference in appearance between Model '73 and Model 70. The constructional differences are as follows: — cartridge, 45-70-405; steel instead of iron barrel; lock plate thinner and without beveled edge; hammer and screw heads rounded; rear swivel held by screw instead of rivet; changed shape of forward swivel and of band; stacking swivel added; rear sight changed and set further forward; metal parts all finished dark; stock rounded adjoining lock plate and on upper edge as far as band.

Refer to No. 8. Springfield Model 1877. No radical change in appearance from the Model 1870. The lock has a three-click tumbler. The sight is slightly different. A wiping rod in pieces to be screwed together is held in a recess in the butt, reached through a trap door in the butt plate.

Plate 37

No. i, Ilotchkiss. 1878. This is the repeater developed from the single shot bolt action arm patented in 1875 by B. B. Hotchkiss, and made, this and the later ones also, by the Winchester Co. It used the service .45 calibre ammunition. It was a good arm, having as its principal defect the slow-loading of the magazine. It was considerably used by United States troops.

In 1879 two Ordnance officers offered their Russcll-Livermore design for loading and carrying cartridges in a different way; their plan was to drop the ammunition into a well opening from the comb of the stock. Refused.

No. 2, Hotchkiss. 1882. This pattern differs from the 1878 one in having both the cut-off and the safety set inside the wood. Both this arm and its predecessor have sectional cleaning rods contained in their fore-ends, reached through the fore end tip.

No. J, Hotchkiss. 1883. In this, the most developed type, a steel receiver is interposed between the butt and the fore end, and the cut-off and safety are set on the outside.

No. 4, Springfield Model 1884. The changes conformed to those in the Model 1884 rifle.

No. 5, Krag. Model 1896. This carbine is built after the Model 1892 Krag rifle and differs in the following particulars: — the barrel is 22 inches long; half stock; only one band, and that provided with a rear sight protector; no butt swivel and plate; cleaning rod in two sections and carried in the butt. Ammunition the same as for the rifle.


No. 'o} Kragy Model 1899. The changes conformed with those in the rifle Model 1898.

Since the Model 1899 no carbines have been made, the modern rifle being used by all branches of the service. In fact our Springfield rifle, only about 3 feet, 7 inches long, is shorter and handier than some of the carbines were, considered as horsemen's arms. Among foreign nations also the tendency for a score of years past has been towards a one-service arm. Of the dozen or so nations who fought with us in the World War only four still issued, officially, a special arm to its cavalry.

Carbines of Official Issue used by the Allies Who Participated in Actual Fighting in the World War

No. 7, Great Britain. Commonly called the Short Enfield. Length 3 feet, 8k inches. Calibre .303. Barrel length 25 inches. 5 grooves, twist 1 in 10 inches. 10 shot magazine. This arm superseded the Long Enfield after 1907 until the exigencies of the World War brought the Long Enfield again into service.

No. 8, France. Bcrthier carbine, Model 1892. 8 mm. Weight 7f pounds. Box magazine holding 3 cartridges. Length of barrel 18 inches. 4 grooves having 1 turn in 21 £ inches.

No. P, Italy. Mannlicher-Carcano. 1891. Calibre 6.5 mm or .256. Weight 6 pounds 14f ounces.

Has bayonet, permanently fixed to it, when not in use folding rearward below.

No, 10, Rumania. Mannlicher. 1893. Calibre 6.5 mm or .256.

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