Figure Aimingpoint method

• When the aiming point is on the gun-target line, the gunner lays the MK 19 on the aiming point, which aligns it on the target.

• When the aiming point is not on the gun-target line, the gunner measures the deflection with binoculars or compass, and adjusts the lay of the MK 19.

(c) Aiming-stake Method. When no natural aiming point is available, the assistant gunner sets out an aiming stake, and the gunner aligns the gun on the target.

(d) Map-and-compass Method. The leader locates the MK 19 position and target on a map; draws a line between the two points; orients the map to the terrain; and places the line of sight on the compass along the gun-target line drawn on the map. The leader then announces the magnetic azimuth at the compass index to the gunner as the direction of lay (Figure 5-23). Using this method with terrain-profiling techniques permits the MK 19 to be used in various defilade positions.

Magnetic Lay Lines Map
Figure 5-23. Map-and-compass method.

(2) Elevation. To lay the gun for elevation when engaging targets from defilade, knowledge of the trajectories of 40-mm rounds and of indirect lay is necessary. The MK 19 mounted on the M3 tripod with the T&E mechanism is not equipped to deliver indirect fire in the traditional sense like a mortar. Because the MK 19 has a high-arc trajectory when in the direct-fire mode, it can be fired effectively from defilade if the gunner positions it properly with the help of a well-trained observer. Discussion of laying the MK 19 for elevation includes those techniques and procedures that do not require a lot of data and calculations.

(a) The AE is the vertical angle between the bore line and the line of sight, when the gun and target are at the same elevation (Figure 5-24). The AE is always a positive (plus) and increases as the range increases. The AE for 40-mm ammunition, for each 100 meters of range up to 2,700 meters, is contained in Appendix F, Firing Table. For example, to hit a target at a range of 1,000 meters with M430 HEDP ammunition, the MK 19 must have an AE of+131.9 mils to the line of sight. Is a discussion on leveling the tripod necessary or can the gunner "eye-ball" it?

(b) When the MK 19 and target are not at the same elevation, an additional angle must be taken into consideration. The angle of sight (AS) is the vertical angle formed by the line of sight and a horizontal line from the base of the gun. When the target is at a higher elevation than the gun, the AS is positive (plus) (Figure 5-24). When the target is lower than the gun, the AS is negative (minus).

(c) The angle of quadrant elevation (QE) is formed between the bore line and the horizontal line through the base of the gun (Figure 5-24). The QE is positive (plus) whenever the gun is aimed above the horizontal, and negative (minus) whenever the gun is aimed below the horizontal. It is the algebraic sum of the AE and the AS; that is, if the angle of sight is positive, it is added to the AE; if the AS is negative, it is subtracted from the AE.

QE = AE + AS (target above horizontal line) QE = AE - AS (target below horizontal line) Other methods of elevation are as follows:

• Computed quadrant elevation method. The leader must determine the correct range to the target. Using the range, the leader finds the corresponding AE from Appendix F, Firing Table. The leader must find the AS using binoculars, by measuring in mils the vertical interval between the target and the estimated horizontal. The leader may assume the distant horizon to be at a zero AS, or at the same elevation as the MK 19 position. QE may be determined by algebraically adding this data as previously described.

• Measured quadrant elevation method. The gunner should locate the MK 19 in partial defilade and lay it on the target using direct-lay methods. The leader measures the QE with the M2 compass. The gunner moves the MK 19 into defilade position and places the measured QE on the gun. For each meter difference in elevation between the position in partial defilade and the firing position, the gunner adds 1 mil to the QE when firing at a range of 1,000 meters; 1/2 mil when firing at 2,000 meters, and so on.

• Aiming-point method. The gunner selects an aiming point visible from the MK 19 position; preferably a point at a greater range than the target and at a higher elevation than the target, and the leader finds the range to the target. Using binoculars, the leader measures the vertical angle in mils from the aiming point to the base of the target. The leader has the gunner lay the MK 19 on the aiming point, with the sight set to hit the aiming point, and then directs the gunner to manipulate the gun through the number of mils measured from the aiming point to the target. For example, the range to the target is 1,000 meters (Figure 5-25). The angle read with the binoculars from the aiming point down to the base of the target is 12 mils. The sight should be set at 1,000 meters, with the MK 19 laid on the aiming point, and the muzzle then depressed 12 mils.







Mk19 Ballistic Trajectory
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