The use of range cards and predetermined fires are important at night or during degraded conditions because the targets or engagement areas are chosen and marked in advance, which enables the gunner to adjust onto targets quickly and easily. The gunner must know how to read his traversing slide bar and T&E mechanism. This task can be difficult at night or during degraded conditions. The gunner can mark targets on the slide bar with luminous tape, use mini-chemical lights, or use flashlights with red lens covers.
a. Firing with the use of illumination has proven to be much the same as firing during normal daylight conditions. Estimation of distances and adjustment of rounds are difficult at night or during degraded conditions. Gunners should be able, using illumination, to effectively engage targets out to 800 meters as well as they can in the daylight. Due to long shadows and dispersion of light past this distance however, visibility is poor even with illumination.
b. The AN/TVS-5 can be mounted on the MK 19 and used effectively to spot and adjust rounds to targets out to ranges of 800 meters. Past this range, the elevation of the scope on the gun is too high to see the impact of the rounds, so it can be handheld by an observer who calls out adjustments to fire.
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