(7) 6"..*wi>n Af 1891 Rifle. <2) 6.5mm Ml<<¡91 TS Carbine. (3) 6.5mm M1891 Carbine. (4) 6.1mm 194! Rifle. (5) 6.5mm M ¡$91/21 Carbine. (6) 7.J5 mm 1938 Rifle. (7) 7.35mm M1938 TS Cat bine. (8) 7J5mm M1938 Carbine. (9) 6.5mm M/93S Rifle. (10) Ballila (Youth) Rifle-ihis toy uses a special blank cartridge.
The Model 38 is basically the Model 1891 designed for a new cartridge and modified accordingly. Afier Italy entered World War II (1940), supply problems caused a switchback to the 6.5111111 cartridge. Therefore many of the M38 weapons were made in 6.5111m.
Model 1891 Series (Including Model 38)
This is a turn-bolt, modified Mauser design with Mannlicher type magazine. The modifications were designed by M. Carcano of the government arsenal at Turin (Torino).
The bolt is of one-piece design with dual opposed locking lugs at the bolt head. The lugs seat in the receiver ring. The bolt head is recessed, cut away on the underside to permit the cartridges to be fed upward from the magazine and under the extractor claw which grips the head of the rimless cartridge as the bolt thrusts forward. A gas vent is drilled through the bolt cylinder about 1/2 inch behind the bolt face. When the bolt is locked the vent is on the right side of the piece. The bolt handle is straight. The bolt stop operates in the bolt-wav in the right side of the receiver bridge.
The striker is of one-piece design with a forward collar to limit forward travel of the firing pin and to serve as the forward compression point for the mainspring. It extends to the rear out of the bolt cylinder. The striker assembly consists of (1) the striker, (2) the mainspring, (3) the safety sleeve, (4) the cocking piece, (5) the cocking piece nut retaining plunger and spring and (6) the cocking piece nut which has a knurled head.
The safety sleeve fits around the striker and inside the bolt cylinder. It has a small stud on the outside which travels in a suitably shaped slot cut near the rear of the bolt cylinder. At the rear of the sleeve a sturdy steel "flag" projects at right-angles to the sleeve to provide the means for operating the safety and to serve as an indicator as to whether the safety is "on" or "off." The rear surface of this "flag" is deeply checkered. The forward edge of the safety sleeve, inside the bolt cylinder, serves as the rear compression point for the mainspring.
The cocking piece slips on the striker behind the safety sleeve. The round striker rod has a flat place on it at this point so that it cannot turn inside the cocking piece. The conventional lug or "nose" on the cocking piece extends, nn this rifle, about 21,4 inches forward. For about half its length its thickness is reduced so that it can extend forward over the bolt cylinder. It fits into a groove cut into ihe inside left wall of the receiver bridge to form a guide rib which thus prevents the cocking piece and striker from turning throughout the length of the bolt travel. The conventional cocking nose is a camming surface on the thicker portion of the lug (or guide rib, if you prefer) just at the rear of the bolt cylinder. At the rear end of the rib is inlet the spring loaded plunger which locks the cocking piece nut when the latter has been screwed into place on the threaded end of the striker to complete the assembly.
The rear end of the bolt cylinder has the conventional ait into which the cocking nose moves when the cocking piece and firing pin go forward to fire the piece. The right side of this cut is 011 an angle corresponding to the angle of the camming surface on the cocking nose. Hence, as the bolt handle is lifted, turning the bolt cylinder to the left, the camming surface on the bolt cylinder engages the camming surface on the cocking nose forcing the cocking piece to
Italian Model IS9I, Anion Closed and Open, das escupe port may be seen at forward end of boll cylinder.
the rear. As the bolt handle is fujly lifted the nose of the cocking piece rides out of the cocking notch onto the rear, fiat face of the bolt cylinder, holding the striker back with the mainspring about half compressed.
Hie cocking stud is on the bottom of the cocking piece and moves in a groove in the tang. As the bolt is pulled fully to the rear the cocking stud is engaged by the sear rising through the groove in the tang. As the bolt is thrust forward and turned down, the bolt head locking lugs are cammed forward and down into the locking recesses in the receiver ring. The forward motion of the locking lugs as they cam into place completes the compression of the mainspring
The extractor is a flat spring mounted in the outside of the upper right quadrant of the bolt cylinder, flush with the outside of the cylinder. L-shaped, the long shank extends about 2 inches backward from the bolt face along the upper side of the right-hand locking lug. The short shank then passes to the right, ahead of the locking lug and forms the extracting claw which grasps about one quarter of the rim of the case. Obviously much of the strain of extraction must be taken by that portion of the claw which lies at the end of the long shank—not a particularly rugged type of extractor when a "sticky" case is encountered.
The ejector is mounted in front of the sear and is activated by the sear spring. Its upper end passes through a slot in the lower left quadrant of the receiver at the rear edge of the magazine well. The forward portion of the bolt is slotted to permit the ejector to emerge through the bolt face and strike the base of the cartridge. The bottom of this slot forms a ramp toward the rear so that as the bolt is pushed forward the ejector is pressed downward until it is riding on the smooth round surface of the bolt cylinder at the time the bolt handle is turned down to lock the piece.
The trigger pivots on a pin and wrorks in a slot in the sear. It provides the standard military type double pull. An arm on the right side of the trigger extends upward and is linked to the bolt stop. Pulling the trigger thus operates the bolt stop and sear simultaneously. The sear is pivoted to the receiver. The nose of the sear, which engages the cocking piece, is a separate piece pinned to the rear of the sear. The forward end of the sear is drilled to receive the sear spring and the rear tip of the ejector.
The magazine is the projecting Mannlicher type, formed by a continuation forward of the triggerguard. The elevator bears directly on the bottom cartridge in the clip and does not carry a follower. This is possible because the Italian cartridge is of the rimless type permitting the use of a straight clip, eliminating the mechanical complications involved in handling rimmed cartridges requiring the use of a curved clip. Clip capacity is six cartridges.
The stock is of standard one-piece design plus a short handgnard. It is without a pistol grip.
The receiver is of the split-bridge type. The bolt handle turns down well forward of the bridge and does not bear on it.
Austrian Mannlicher Rittes Used by Italy in World War II
At the close of World War I, Italy received large stores of Austrian supplies. These included Model 1888 and Model 1895 rifles and carbines in caliber 8mm Austrian. Many of these arms were used by Italian troops during World War II.
MauHZyp/1' SeC'i0"al lowing Ad,on Closed and Ready ,o Fire
S'ote while clip is of Mannlicher pattern, the bolt head is solid
Italian ai 91, Sectional Drawing Showing Action Open and Magazine loaded ready for forward holt stroke.
While Italy was intensively engaged in experimental work on semiautomatic rifles very early in the present century, no practical semiautomatic rifle was ever issued for general troop use. The Cei-Rigotti gas operated conversion of the Model 91, the Austrian Freddi, recoil operated, and the Italian Terni, are seldom encountered and are classifiable as collectors' freaks rather than as standard weapons. The Breda Model P.G. is an early—1935—selective fire weapon. It is an interesting weapon but was not very successful. Limited quantities were used by the Italian Army in 6.5mm and Costa Rico in 7mm Mauser. The Model P.G. is gas operated, 44 inches long, with a barrel 18 inches long and weighs 11.5 pounds empty. An unusual feature of the rifle is that it does not have feed lips on the magazine; they are machined into the receiver. The Cei-Rigotti is of passing interest because it introduced in 1911 a gas operating system similar to that now used in the Russian Tokarev rifles. Limited numbers of Scotti 6.5mm semi-automatic rifles were issued during World War II.
Breda 6.5mtn Model G.P. 1935 Semiautomatic Rifle.
Scotti Brescia 6.5mm Model X (10) Semiautomatic Rifle.
Italian Sporting Rifles
Beretta manufactures a series of caliber .22 rifles:
The Model Sport is a semi-automatic with box magazine chambered for the .22 Long Rifle cartridge. It is a bit over 38 inches long, has a 20-inch barrel and weighs 6.2 pounds.
The Super Sport is similar to the Sport but is longer and heavier, has a Monte Carlo type butt and checkered pistol grip and fore-end.
The Olimpia is also a semi-automatic chambered for the .22 Long Rifle cartridge, but it can also be used as a bolt action. If the bolt handle is left in the horizontal position, the weapon fires semi-automatically, but if the bold handle is lowered the weapon has to be manually reloaded by operating the bolt. The front sight is a hooded ramp type and the rear sight is a tangent type adjustable in elevation and windage.
The W. XXII is also a .22 Long Rifle semi-automatic. It is Beretta's best grade gun in this line. The receiver is grooved for a telescope mount and the stock
is a Monte Carlo type with checkered fore-end and pistol grip. Like the other semi-automatics, it uses box magazines.
The Super Olimpia is a single-shot bolt-action match rifle. It has an Anschutz micrometer rear sight, a globe front with changeable inserts. This rifle is 44.06 inches long and weighs 10.5f> pounds.
The firm of Luigi Franchi manufactures a .22 Long Rifle semi-automatic. The Franchi Centennial, so called since it appeared in the Franchis centennial year —1968—is fed by a tubular magazine and has a quick takedown feature. A deluxe engraved version is also available.
Beretta 22 L.R. Sport Model Semi-automatic Rifle.
Beretta .22 L.R. Olimpia Semi-automatic Rifle.
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Beretta 22 L.R. W.XXII Semi-automatic Rifle.
Beretta .22 L.R. Super Olimpia Rifle.
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