PRINCIPAL GOVERNMENT PLANTS: Tula, Izshevsky, and many others.
Shortly after World War II the U.S.S.R. adopted three squad level weapons for a new "intermediate" sized 7.62mm cartridge. These weapons are the 7.62mm SKS semiautomatic carbine, the 7.62mm AK-47 assault rifle, and the 7.62mm RPD light machine gun.
The 7.62mm AK-17 was initially issued to replace the submar.hinegun in the Soviet Army, but later bccame the standard shoulder arm replacing the SKS carbine as such. The AK, in turn, is being replaced by the 7.62mm AKM assault rifle.
Soviet 7 ¿2mm AK-47 Assault Rifle, right side view.
System of operation: Gas. selective fire Weight, loaded: 10.58 lbs. Length, overall: w/fixed wooden stock: 34.25" w/folding stock extended: 31-25" w/folding stock folded: 25.39" Barrel length: 16.34"
Feed device: 30-round, curved, staggcrcd-row, detachable box magazine, not tillable with chargers
Muzzle velocity: 2329 f.p.s.
Bore diameter: .301"
Groove diameter: .311"
Direction of twist: Right, 1 turn in 9.45"
Sights, front: Protected post rear: Tangent leaf with open V-notch, graduated from 1-8 (100 M to 800 M) with battle-sight setting
The AK-47 Assault Rifle is considered even more efficient than the SKS Semiautomatic Carbine and is rated excellent in its class. It is comfortable to shoot and easily controlled in full automatic fire. This is attributed to its loaded weight (roughly 10.5 pounds) in relation to the medium-power 7.62mm x 39mm M43 cartridge it fires as compared with NATO-type rifles of similar weight where recoil is somewhat more pronounced because of the full-powered 7.62mm NATO cartridge used. It has a full automatic cyclic rate of fire of 600 rpm, obtainable when the selector lever on the right side of the receiver is centrally
Section View of AK-47 Assault Rifle. J, Hammer. 2, Holt. ), Firing pin. 4, Operating rod. 5, Recoil spring. 6, Gas piston. 7, Gas cylinder. 8, Magazine. 9, Magazine catch. 10, Full automatic sear. 11, Trigger and hammer spring. 12, Trigger.
located on the Cyrillic symbols: AB. In the lowest position, with the lever on OD, semiautomatic fire is possible. With the lever upright, the weapon is on "Safe."
The AK is simply constructed, yet sturdy, and machined in accordance with newly-elevated Soviet standards of manufacture, paralleling those of Western Europe and the United States. Internally, the full length of the barrel is
chromium-plated for greater wear and rustproohng. The gas cylinder being loeated above the barrel makes for an almost straight-line butt stock. In addition to the standard infantry pattern with wooden butt, a special AK is produced for para troop and armored troop use. This has a folding metal butt similar to that oi the German Scluneisser submachine gun of World War II fame.
The AK has a sliding, tangent-type rear sight, adjustable in loo-meter increments from 100-800 meters. A separate battlesight setting is provided. To zero in, the front sight is screwed up or down; lateral adjustments for windage are made with a special tool.
AK Bolt and Boll Carrier.
Soviet 7.62mm ARM Assault Rifle
The AKM is the current Soviet service rifle and is replacing the AK. A KM is a modification of the AK and differs from the AK as follows:
(1) The AKM has a stamped steel receiver as opposed to the milled receiver of the AK.
(2) The gas relief holes in the AKM gas cylinder tube are semi-circular cutouts at the forward end of the tube which match similar cutouts in the gas cylinder block. On the AK, there are four gas relief holes cut into each side of the gas cylinder tube.
(3) There is a rate reducer attached to the trigger mechanism of the AKM; however, the rate of fire of the AKM is the same as that of the AK.
(4) The AKM has a beavertail-type fore-end; i.e., it bulges out on both sides.
(5) The rear sight leaf of the AKM is graduated to 1000 meters as opposed to the 800 meter graduation on the AK. The AKM uses the sight leaf of the RPK light machine gun.
(6) The AKM stock and fore-end are made of laminated wood; those of the AK are usually made of ordinary birch or beech.
(7) The bolt and bolt carrier of the AKM are parkerized; those of the AK are bright steel.
Disassembly, assembly and function of the AKM are the same as those of the AK. There is a folding stock version of the AKM which has the same general appearance as the folding stock version of the AK. The AKM weighs 8.87 pounds loaded as opposed to the 10.58 pounds of the AK.
7.62mm SKS Carbine
The SKS is chambered for the same 7.62mm "intermediate" sized M43 cartridge as is used with the AK-47.
7.62mm Assault Rifle A KM
The A KM stripped
Soviet 7.62mm SKS Carbine.
System of operation: Gas, semiautomatic fire only
Weight, loaded: 8.84 II). Length, overall: 40.16" Barrel length: 20.47"
Feed device: lo-round, fixed, staggered double-row. box magazine
Sights, front: Hooded post rear: Tangent leaf, graduated from 100 M to 1000 M Muzzle velocity: 2411 f.p.s. Type of bolt: 1 piece, tipping Bore diameter: .301" Groove diameter: .311" Direction of twiyt: Right 1 turn in 9.if,"
Section View of SKS Carbine.
The SKS was adopted before the AK. It is a gas-operated, semiautomatic rifle and might be referred to as a miniature version of the outstanding 14.5mm PTRS semiautomatic antitank rifle used during World War II. Because of its light recoil, 35 r.p.m. of aimed fire can be achieved.
Unlike its predecessor, the Tokarev, the SKS features an instantly dismount-able gas system. The gas cylinder is an integral part of the handguard and contains the piston rod, tappet rod, and tappet rod return spring. The front end of the combined gas cylinder and handguard fits over a gas port housing pinned to the barrel approximately 7" from the muzzle. The rear end abuts against the rear sight. The latch located on the right side of this sight serves to lock the handguard-gas cylinder assembly into place. Its removal for field maintenance takes less than three seconds.
When the rifle is fired, gas enters the gas port housing under pressure to thrust the piston rod back against the short tappet rod. In moving back, the tappet rod slides through a hole in the rear sight base and a corresponding one in the top of the receiver to strike the bolt carrier. The claw-like arrange-
mcnt of the bolt carrier cams the rear end of the bolt upward, unlocking it completely after 7/16" of rearward travel. The kinetic energy imparted to the bolt carrier upon being struck by the tappet rod is sufficient to cause the bolt and bolt carrier to travel together 3%" rearward to extract and eject the fired case and to compress the recoil spring. The compressed recoil spring forces the bolt and carrier forward to strip a cartridge from the magazine
and chamber it. 1'he camming surfaces within the carrier force the rear end ol the holt down into locked position. The lower rear end of the bolt then butts up against a crosspiece set in the receiver.
The bayonet of the SKS is attached to the barrel and folded back under the barrel when not in use. The stock and handguard of laminated beechwood are given a hard, clear lacquer, waterproof finish. The butt contains a com bination cleaning tool and cleaning kit. The receiver, bolt carrier, bolt, and trigger group are closely-machined parts.
The magazine group is unusual and consists of a stamped and welded sheet metal housing, stamped sheet metal floor cap, and sheet metal follower. Both the follower arm and floor cap are hinged to the forward end of the magazine body. A coil spring set at the hinging point furnishes sufficient pressure to the follower arm to insure feed of cartridges. The weapon can be loaded from above with to-shot stripper clips for which a guide groove has been provided in the forward face of the boll carrier. It is important to exert thumb pressure against the cartridges as close to the clip as possible since pressure applied farther forward makes it difficult to strip the last three rounds. The stripper clip is a one-piece, spring-steel stamping—very sturdy and efficient. The magazine can also be loaded with single rounds.
When unloading the weapon for Held stripping, rapid emptying of the magazine is accomplished by holding the hand under the floor cap 10 catch the loaded rounds as the cap drops open upon pulling back the magazine latch. After clearing the chamber, swing latch on right side of rear sight upward to the first stop. The gas cylindcr-handguard assembly can be removed by lifting
up at the rear and withdrawing it from its forward contact with the gas port housing. By swinging up the latch to its second stop, plunger and spring can be released easily provided thumb pressure is maintained against tappet rod.
To dismantle the bolt assembly, swing latch pinned to the receiver on the right of the rear sight until it is upright and pull out as far as possible. Raise rear end of receiver cover, pulling back and out. Recoil spring can now be removed. By pulling bolt carrier up and out to the rear, bolt will be simultaneously extracted. Push safety lever into safe position. With point of bullet, press pocket of spring catch directly behind triggerguard and push forward. Trigger group will become unfastened and jump outward; swing out and pull back to remove. Pull magazine group down and to the rear. Gripping receiver latch pin, lift receiver up anil out of stock. Pull handle of bayonet towards blade; pull bayonet down. Remove cleaning rod from under barrel.
By reversing these steps, the weapon can be reassembled. However, the following precautions must be observed. Reseat fore-end of stock properly within barrel band. When replacing the magazine, its forward end must engage the lug extending from the rear sight beneath the barrel. Hinge magazine upward and hold in position, while guiding projecting pins on trigger group into receiver lug. Apply pressure; if trigger group does not click into place, brace gun with one hand and, with the palm of the other, deliver a sharp blow against the triggerguard to insure full seating.
The SVD (SVD means Self Loading Rifle, Dragunov) Sniper rifle is the current Soviet sniper rifle. It is chambered for the 7.62mm rimmed cartridge (7.62 x 53R). The Model PSO-1 scope used with this rifle is four power. The
SVD has an unusual stock in that the large section of the butt stock is cut out immediately behind the pistol grip; this lightens the weight of the rifle considerably. The action of the SVD closely resembles that of the AK. It has a prong-type flash suppressor similar to those used on many Western arms.
The SVD has a removable box magazine. It is removed by pushing the magazine catch—located behind the magazine port—forward and pulling the magazine down. Insert loaded magazine in the magazine port, pushing it upward until it locks into place. Pull operating handle—locatcd on the right side of the receiver —fully to the rear and release it thus chambering a cartridge. The weapon is now loaded and will fire one round for each pull of the trigger until the magazine is empty. The safety is mounted oil the right side of the receiver in a position similar to that of the AK/AKM. The safety is engaged by pushing the lever upwards.
The action of the SVD is essentially the same as that of the AK/AKM. The principal difference is that the SVD has a spring-loaded piston rod which is a separate assembly; it is not attached to that of the bolt carrier as is that of the AK/AKM. The trigger mcchanism has 12 parts including the fabricated trigger housing/triggerguard. It varies from the AK/AKM trigger mechanism in that it does not have a full automatic sear or full automatic disconnector and it has a separate trigger spring in addition to the hammer spring as opposed to the one spring which performs both function in the AK/AKM. The SVD is very similar to the Soviet Model "Bear" sporting rifle.
System of operation: Length overall: Barrel length: Feed device: Sights—front: rear: Weight:
7.62 mm rimmed Gas, semi-automatic 48.2 in. 24 in.
10-round, staggered row detachable-box magazine
Soviet 7.62mm SVD (Dragunov) Sniper Rifle.
The Russians started working on semiautomatic rifles early in the 20th century. Some of the early efforts involved converting the bolt action Mi891 Mosin Nagant into a self-loader. V. G. Fedorov produced a self-loading design in 1907 and Roshchepya converted a Mosin Nagant in 1905. The famed Russian designer F. V. Tokarev also produced a semiautomatic rifle in this period. The 1916 Fedorov was the first Russian selective fire rifles that was produced in quantity. This weapon was chambered for the 6.5mm Japanese cartridge. This recoil operated, selective fire weapon could be considered one of the first assault rifles. It is fed by a 25-round box magazine, weighs 9.7 lbs. and is 39 inches long.
Soviet 7.62 Selective fire Tokarev M1940 Rifle.
Soviet 7.62mm Semiautomatic Tokarev M1910 Rifle.
Limited production of a few types were carried out. Among these was a 1931 Model believed to be a design of Sergei Gavrilovich Simonov and a Model 1932 Tokarev carbine. Both of these weapons are gas operated and chambered for the Russian 7.62mm rimmed cartridge. The first selective fire rifle produced in significant quantity was the 7.62mm M1936 Simonov (AVS). The Simonov was followed by the semiautomatic 7.62mm Tokarev M1938 (SVT-38) and the semiautomatic and selective fire 7.62mm Mi940 Tokarevs (SVT-40) and (AVT-40).
Differences Between the Various Models of the Tokarev Rifle
7.62 Tokarev Semiautomatic Rifle Model 1938 (SVT-38). a. Has a two-piece stock and two stock bands.
b. A groove is cut out on the right side of the stock for the cleaning rod. The two stock bands serve as cleaning rod retainers.
c. This rifle has a one-piece magazine release.
d. It has a sheet metal guard forward of the wooden handguard.
e. It has a six-baffle muzzle brake.
7.62mm Tokarev Semiautomatic Sniper Rifle M ¡938. This model is the same as the semiautomatic rifle M1938 except that the barrel has been selected and the receiver has been drilled and tapped lor a telescope mount.
7.62mm Tokarev Semiautomatic liijle M1940 (SVT-40). a. It has top and bottom sheet metal guards forward of the stock and handguard.
b. The full length cleaning rod is fitted into the stock under the barrel, and is held in place by a spring catch on the bayonet lug.
c. The stock is of one piece design.
d. The magazine release is of two-piece design.
e. The bayonet is shorter than the Mi938 bayonet.
f. It has a two or three baffle muzzle brake.
7.62 Tokarev Automatic Rifle M1940 (AVT-40). The automatic rille M1940 is almost identical in appearance to the semiautomatic rifle M1940. A notch has been cut into the right side of the stock, at the rear of the trigger guard, to allow the safety lever to swing to the right for automatic fire.
7.62 Tokarev Semiautomatic Sniper Rifle Ml940. This model is the same as the semiautomatic rifle Mi940 except that the barrel has been selected and the receiver has been drilled and tapped for a telescope mount.
Description of the Soviet Tokarev Models IU38 and 1940
These are gas operated semiautomatic rifles. The basic operating system is the same in all models. Differences lie in stock design and in minor changes in compensators and magazine catches. The bolt is held open in position for recharging of the magazine after the last cartridge has been ejected.
The design has a somewhat unusual feature, a "false muzzle" in the form of a sleeve screwed over the barrel and pinned in place. The "compensator" or "muzzle brake" is formed as a part of this sleeve. The front sight stud and the bayonet stud are integral with this false muzzle instead of being attached to the barrel as is the usual practice. The gas port housing is also formed at the rear of the sleeve where it screws over the muzzle of the barrel.
The breech action assembly consists of (1) the gas valve and operating rod assembly (2) the operating slide or "bolt carrier" (3) the bolt assembly (4) the breech cover or "housing" and (5) the recoil or "bolt return" spring.
A gas port is drilled through the top of the barrel a short distance from the true muzzle. It is covered by the gas port housing. The forward wall of the gas port housing is drilled and tapped to accept a small lag-bolt. The inner end of this bolt projects over the gas port and is provided with five cuts of varying dimension. The outer end of the bolt projects forward out of the housing and is provided with five Hat surfaces, instead of the conventional square head. A number, from 1 to 5 inclusive, is stamped on each flat surface. By turning this bolt the flow of gas from the gas port upward into the gas port housing can be controlled to provide more or less thrust on the operating rod.
A round steel cylinder bored through from end to end is threaded into the rear of the gas port housing so that it lies over the barrel and parallel to it with the open end of the cylinder to the rear. We will refer to this as the "gas cvlinder." A bottle necked steel sleeve, bored out from front and rear so as to
leave a solid steel wall inside the cylinder at the bottle neck, is slipped over the open end of the gas cylinder to form a sleeve valve.
The operating rod assembly consists of a two-piece steel rod and a coiled return-spring. The short rear section of the operating rod is surrounded by the coiled return-spring and lies under the rear sight base, extending to the rear through a tunnel drilled through the rear sight-base lug on top of the receiver ring. As it emerges the end of the rod impinges on the forward nose of the bolt carrier. The forward portion of the rod is enlarged to form a collar. The return spring bears against this collar and, to the rear, against the rear sight-base lug. The forward end of the rod is bored out inside the collar to form a slip-fit coupling which accepts the rear end of the longer section of the operating rod. This longer section extends forward on top of the barrel and slips into the bottlenecked portion of the sleeve valve.
As the bullet passes the gas port some of the gits forces its way upward into the gas port housing and expands to the rear through the gas port cylinder. Emerging from the rear of the cylinder it is trapped inside the sleeve valve and forces the sleeve sharply to the rear. This movement of the sleeve valve forces the operating rod to the rear for a distance of about i i/o inches. Further movement of the rod is stopped at this point by the full compression of the return spring against its rear bearing. The spring then returns the rod and sleeve valve to their forward positions.
In the meantime the operating rod has forced the bolt carrier sharply rearward for a distance equal to about half the full travel distance of the carrier and bolt. The carrier and bolt continue to the rear under their own momentum. The extraction of the cartridge case is completed, the hammer cocked, and the recoil spring is fully compressed. The recoil spring then returns the carrier and bolt to their forward positions. As the bolt moves forward it strips a cartridge from the top of the stack in the magazine, chambers it, the bolt locks and the gun is ready to fire.
The bolt carrier or operating slide is a rugged steel housing about 434 inchcs long and, when viewed from the rear, roughly of a figure 8 shape with the bottom of the eight cut away to form a semi-cylindrical housing which fits down over the bolt. The top of the figure 8 section is bored out from the rear to take the forward portion of the two-piece coil spring which is the recoil spring. The solid forward end of this section forms the "nose" of the bolt carrier which takes the thrust of the operating rod when the action is opened. Guide ribs running along the outside of the bottom edge of the housing engage grooves in the receiver to hold the carrier as it slides backward and forward. The groove on the right side of the receiver is milled away at the rear, under the breech cover, so that when the cover is removed the carrier and bolt may be lifted out of the receiver. About oE an inch from the rear of the housing it is cut away on each side to provide for the camming lugs on the bolt. The front and rear surfaces of these cuts are made at an angle to provide camming surfaces for the bolt camming lugs. The bolt handle projects straight out to the right from the forward end of the carrier.
The bolt is of one piece design. The bolt face is recessed. Dual opposed camming lugs (not locking lugs) are situated on the right and left side at the bottom rear of the bolt. The firing pin is of one piece, two diameter, design with its larger diameter at the rear. It is inserted into the bolt from the rear. A coil spring mounted around the forward portion of the firing pin bears against the inside of the bolt head and presses backward against the shoulder formed by the larger diameter of the firing pin at the rear. This spring keeps the nose of the firing pin constantly retracted into the bolt face except when it is forced sharply forward by the impact of the hammer. The firing pin is held in place in the bolt by a drift pin which passes through the bolt from left to
Russian Model 1938 Tokarev (SI'T) caliber 7.62ram. This is a gas operated rifle. The gas system resembles that of the Simonov. The iear of the bolt is lowered and raised to lock. Locking engagement is to the rear of the magazine. This weapon has. a two-piece stock and can be easily distinguished from the Model 1910 Tokarev by the full length cleaning rod mounted on the right, side of the stock.
right. A slot is cut across the top of the enlarged rear portion of the firing pin and the drift pin passes through this slot. The slot is wide enough to permit the firing pin to move forward and backward under the drift pin for the distance required to fire the cartridge. The bottom rear surface of the bolt is the locking surfacc. The head of the bolt is unsupported. When the action is open the bolt fits snugly up into the semi-cylindrical under portion of the bolt carrier. The camming lugs on the bolt are up in the cam-shaped notches in the rear under sides of the carrier. As the carrier is pushed forward by the recoil spring the engagement of the camming lugs in the notches of the carrier carry the bolt forward. The rear end of the barrel extends backward through the receiver ring about 14 inch. Its perimeter is beveled from the chamber face to the receiver ring. The flanged face of the recessed holt head comes into contact with the face of the chamber and the bolt stops its forward motion. The carrier continues forward about 14 inch until it contacts the receiver ring. During this last 14 inch of forward motion of the carricr the camming notches in the carrier act on the camming lugs on the bolt to force the rear of the bolt down into the bottom of the receiver where the locking surface at the bottom iear of the bolt engages the locking surface in the bottom of the receiver. A special steel block is inserted in the receiver at this point of thrust to minimize wear and to make it possible to compensate for the development of excess headspace without having to discard the bolt or receiver.
When the rifle is fired and the operating rod forces the carrier to the rear the above cycle is reversed. During the first 14 inch of rearward travel of the carrier the camming notches exert a lifting force on the camming lugs, raising the rear end of the bolt, disengaging the locking surfaces and permitting the carricr to move the bolt to the rear.
The extractor is a sturdy steel claw inlet into the upper right quadrant of the bolt and actuated by a coil spring. The outside of the extractor lies flush with the outside of the bolt. The flange on the recessed bolt face is cut away under the extractor. To assist in extraction the neck of the chamber is fluted.
The ejector is merely a finger-like projection extending upward into the bolt raceway from the floor of the receiver at the left rear oF the magazine well. The lower left quadrant of the bolt is grooved to accommodate the ejector and the fiauge around the recessed bolt face is cut away to allow the ejector to strike the head of the cartridge case.
The recoil spring is of two-piece design. The rear half is mounted around a guide rod 3$^ inches long having a bearing shoulder at its rear end. The rear end of this rod takes its bearing against the standing breech. A tube about 3 inches long with a collar around its middle serves as a guide for the front spring and as a coupling for the rear and front halves of the recoil spring. It is inserted into the front end of the rear spring, which bears against one side of the collar, and into the rear end of the front spring which bears against the other side of the collar. The front spring is then inserted in the tunnel in the top of the carrier and takes its bearing against the forward end of the tunnel. When the spring is compressed the hollow coupling tube slides to the rear, sleeve fashion, over the guide rod so that the springs are always well supported to prevent buckling.
The breech cover or housing covers the receiver from the rear of the magazine
Russian Model 1938 and 1940 Series (Tokarcv) action closed and open. Boll handle is a part of the bolt carrier. The true bolt is housed inside the earner. Note cut in barrel face for extractor. There is no primary extraction in this design, and in most models the chamber is fluted to assist in extraction. While this gives effective extraction it also results in mutilation of the fired cases. (Note: Closed rifle is ^ 1938. Open one is 1940. Systems practically identical.) ~
well to the standing breech. Flanges along its lower edges engage grooves in the receiver to hold it in place. It is prevented from sliding to the rear by the standing breech. At the rear it has a semi-circular groove which engages over the top half of the collar at the rear of the recoil spring guide rod so that the pressure of the recoil spring prevents the cover sliding forward except when firmly gripped and pushed forward by hand.
The hammer is of conventional design. To prevent firing if the bolt is not securely locked a semi-cylindrical sieel block is mounted to rotate just forward of the lower end of the hammer and a notch is cut into the hammer at a point which will be adjacent to the block when the hammer is cocked. A curved rocker arm at the end of the block extends forward and upward to bear against a plunger which goes up through the receiver into the bolt locking recess. A small coil spring maintains constant pressure on the rocker arm forcing it upward against the plunger. So long as the plunger is at the top of its stroke, projecting into the locking recess, the semi-cylindrical block is engaged in the hammer notch and the hammer cannot move even though the trigger is pulled and the hammer hook disengaged. When the rear of the bolt is cammed down into its locking recess it forces the plunger down against the spring loaded rocker arm. As the rocker arm is pressed downward it rotates the semi-cylindrical block out of its engagement in the hammer notch and the hammer is free to strike.
The disconnector which operates to prevent "doubling" or full automatic fire is the beveled projecting end of the mainspring guide rod which extends rearward through the hammer hook. As the hammer is cocked and the mainspring compressed the end of this rod is forced back. If pressure has been maintained on the trigger so that the trigger bar is forward where it would exert pressure on the hammer hook to prevent its engaging in the cock-notch on the hammer, the camming surface on the mainspring guide rod pushes the trigger bar downward out of engagement, with the hammer hook. This occurs before the hammer has reached its full-cock position so that when that position is reached the hammer hook is free to engage and hold the hammer. When the trigger is released the trigger bar is moved back slightly so that it clears the holding notch into which the mainspring guide rod pressed it. The trigger bar then rises to its operating position under pressure from the flat spring which lies under it in the triggerguard and serves also as the trigger spring.
The safety is a pivoted trigger block mounted inside the triggerguard behind the trigger. When swung down it prevents any rearward trigger movement. In
Russian Tokarev System, showing operational and construction details.
Upper drawing shows magazine partly loaded and action open ready to load chamber. Pulling back on operating handle frees the bolt assembly to be driven forward by the operating spring. The disconnector prevents release of the hammer until the action is fully forward and locked. The elementary construction of the trigger block safety may be seen in this drawing. The pivoted lever at the extreme rear of the receiver is part of the takedown system. The operating rod is furnished with its own return spring housed in its tunnel in the receiver above the chamber.
Line two shows details of the hand guard and cooling construction.
The third line shows the action unlocked as the operating rod is driven back through its cut in the receiver. The rod driving the bolt carrier back, causes cam movement to lift the bolt out of blocking engagement with the receiver insert. The bolt is then carried back in straight line action by the carrier. The carrier must not be confused with the metal housing which covers it and which encloses the bolt return spring and guide.
Other details show magazine construction.
actual practice it is very simple and efficient, although from a design standpoint the only truly safe device is one which will remove the firing dcvicc from trigger contact and lock it there. In full automatic versions the safety can be swung completely to the right.
The entire triggerguard assembly, which includes the firing mechanism is removable by pressure on a spring loaded collar reached through a latch in the rear of the standing breech.
The magazine is removable through the bottom of the magazine well. The magazine catch is attached to the forward edge of the triggerguard which, as indicated above, extends forward to serve as the floor plate for the hammer assembly. Magazine is the staggered box type holding ten cartridges. The magazine may be loaded from charger clips through the top of the receiver. There is no magazine cut-off. The action remains open in loading position after the last round has been ejected. A projection from the magazine follower through the rear wall of the magazine engages a latch which raises a bolt stop in the raceway in front of the bolt face to hold the action open. When the magazine has been loaded the bolt stop does not release because of the pressure of the recoil spring against the bolt but a slight tug to the rear on the bolt handle releases this pressure, the bolt stop drops and the action closes.
The front sight is a cylindrical, flat topped, post. It is hooded with a light hole in the top of the hood. Sight and hood are dovetailed into a front sight stud which is integral with the false muzzle or sleeve which also forms the compensator.
The rear sight is of the ramp leaf type with vertical sided, round bottomed notch in a flat topped leaf.
Telescopic sights of 3.5 (Model PU) and 4 power (Model PE) are commonly mounted on these rifles.
Model 1936 (Simonov) Rifle (AVS)
This is a gas-operated semiautomatic with a unique locking system for the straight-line bolt. Officially adopted in 1936 it was quickly superseded by the
.Russian Tokarev System, showing details of action at moment of firing, and details of locking and gas operating systems.
Bullet is still in barrel and approaching the gas port. Action is still firmly locked.
Bolt details at left, show bolt assembly in unlocked and locked positions, right side views and rear views. Bolt is shaped to nest in bolt carrier. When rear of bolt is cammed up and the camming lugs on either side are in their cuts in the bottom of the bolt carrier, the action is unlocked and the bolt can move back and forth. When the action is locked, the bolt carrier is advanced beyond the face of the bolt and its rear surfaces cam the bolt down into receiver insert seats. When the operating rod starts the bolt carrier back, the first carricr movement does not affect the bolt itself. When pressure drops, the carrier is back far enough in its guides that it can cam the bolt up within it. On forward movement of the action as the cartridge is seated, the carrier can still be driven farther forward into a receiver recess. During this continued travel it cams down the rear of the bolt into locking engagement.
The muzzle drawings show details of the muzzle brake and gas port construction. The gas port has an adjusting nut which permits regulating the amount of gas tapped off to function the action.
Details of front sight mounting and cleaning rod fastening unit are shown opposite the muzzle views.
The smallest detail shows the positioning pin which secures the firing pin and regulates the length of its movement. Top and front bolt assembly details are shown at lower right. Note that a seating is provided in the front face of the carrier above the line of the bolt to receive the operating rod.
Russian Model ¡9)6 (Simonov) caliber 7.62mm rifle (A I'S). This is a through a barrel port into a gas cylinder. The locking design is very This arm is commonly encountered with a full automatic switch, effective.
gas operated rifle with top operating rod driven back by gas escaping unusual and in field service did not prove practical.
The muzzle brake is a rudimentary form which is not particularly simpler, more reliable Model 1938 Tokarev. The Model 1936 is now something of a collector's piece. These rifles were equipped with a change lever to make it possible to deliver either semiautomatic or full automatic fire. Such weapons come under the restrictions imposed by federal firearms laws in the United States. They must be registered with the Treasury Department and may not be legally transferred without notification to the Treasury Department.
Generally similar in appearance to the Tokarev, the Simonov ran be immediately recognized because of its artillery-type muzzle brake and by the fact that the breech cover is cut away on the right side to allow the bolt handle to move backward and forward—an arrangement which exposes the recoil spring and provides a wide open doorway through which sand and \vater can enter the action.
The gas port, cylinder, sleeve valve and operating rod are similar to the Tokarev assembly. The rear end of the operating rod of the Simonov is formed into a two-pronged fork, the prongs passing to the rear on either side of the rear sight base and thence through the receiver ring into contact with the bolt carrier.
The bolt lock is a hollow square steel unit which moves vertically in slots cut in the receiver ring. The forward end of the bolt moves longitudinally through the hollow square. The top section of the square is provided with cam faccs which are engaged by suitable camming surfaces 011 the underside of the bolt carrier. As the bolt and carrier move forward the bolt head comes up against the face of the chamber as in the Tokarev. The carrier continues forward, as in the Tokarev, and the camming lug on its underside engages the camming surface at the top of the bolt lock lifting it in its slots in the receiver ring until the lock has engaged the bolt. Thus the head of the bolt is locked to the receiver ring. When the gun is fired and the operating rod is forced to the rear the camming surface on the bolt carrier forces the hollow square locking member down in its slots in the receiver ring, disengaging it from the bolt which then moves back with the carrier.
The Russian Mosin Nagant Bolt Action Rifles and Carbines
The Model 1891 is the first of the Russian Mosin Nagant rifles. It was developed by Colonel S. I. Mosin of the Russian Artillery and by Nagant, a Belgian. Mosin developed the action and Nagant the magazine. Mosins name has been transliterated as Mossin, Mouzin, Moisin, and Mossine. Original M1891 rifles varied in many details from later production. They had no handguards, had sling swivels on the front of the magazine and on the upper band, and the rear sight was graduated for the round-nosed M1891 ball. Early drawings of the 1891 show the rear of the trigger guard continued beyond the rear lang screw and formed into a small finger rest under the small of the stock. At some time beween 1891 and 1908 a handguard was added 10 ihe M1891 and the rear sight was changed to one graduated for the M1908 light pointed ball. All Russian rifles manufactured prior to 1930 have their sights graduated in "Arshins"—an arshin is equivalent to .78 yards. These weapons are also known as the "3 line rifles '—a line being an old Russian measurement equivalent to about one-tenth of an inch—3 lines = .30. After the revolution, Russian adopted the metric system and the sights for the M1891/30 and later carbines are graduated in meters.
Characteristics of Soviet Prf. World War II 7.62MM Automatic and Semi-Automatic Rifles
Sem i-au tomatic Se mi-aut o m a t ic
ifie M1936 rifle M19 38
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