Showing importance of proper firing-pin impact. A shows pin nose striking too high across the side wall of riin. B shows firing-pin face of wrong shape, causing the blow to be cushioned by the pin first striking below the priming space in case rim.

sometimes be found to be greater than a right-angle at the outer edge where it strikes the case rim, which makes the inner edge of the firing-pin, that strikes on

Firing Pin Shapes

the case head inside the rim, the longest side of the pin, so that it strikes the case head first and cushions the blow before the outer edge strikes on the rim. Chisel-shaped firing-pins will sometimes wear into such shape, and they have also been put out by factories in this shape. The remedy is to carefully stone the end of the firing-pin at right-angles to the sides of it, using a fine carborundum stone and rounding the edges slightly with a white Arkansas stone.

The movement of the cartridge case into and out of the chamber, in a rifle with repeating action, has a certain degree of lapping action on the chamber as the number of cartridges fired mounts up into the thousands. The practice of some manufacturers of repeating rifles is to harden the chamber end of the barrel on their better grade guns to keep this wear at a

Illustrating how a badly worn chambcr allows cartridge to drop to the bottom, causing a misplacement of the firing-pin blow and cushioning of the impact.

minimum, but in any except the autoloading rifles this wear is not much of a factor in ignition troubles. It is more so in the autoloading rifles for two reasons; one being that usually more ammunition is fired through an autoloading rifle than through any other type of repeating rifle in the same length of time; and the other reason is that usually the chamber of the autoloading rifle is somewhat larger to start with, as

more clearance is usually given the cartridge case in these actions so that they will function properly.

The part these worn chambers may play in ignition troubles is simply to allow the cartridge case to move far enough out of line until the firing-pin strikes on the edge of the rim where it is doubled over, so that the blow of the firing-pin has to compress this edge before it can crush the primer mixture. The remedy here, provided that the chamber is not so badly worn as to cause inaccuracy, is the same as before noted when the firing-pin strikes out over the edge of the rim, to narrow the firing-pin by grinding off its outer edge so that it strikes entirely inside the edge of the rim. If the chamber is worn enough to cause noticeable inaccuracy, a new barrel should be fitted or the old barrel set back and rechambered.

A badly worn or over-large firing-pin hole in a breech-block may allow the pin to move about so that it strikes over the edge of the case rim instead of just inside the edge, thus causing ignition trouble. The remedy for this is to bore out the firing-pin hole in the block or bolt so that it can be threaded for a }4" threaded plug of drill-rod, which is screwed tightly into the hole and cut off flush with the breech-face, after which a new firing-pin hole of the proper size is drilled.

Speed-actions sometimes give ignition troubles on modem high-speed cartridges with their stiff cases and as manufacturers of ammunition are adding even more stiffness to the case material from time to time, to prevent case heads blowing out in older actions, a speed-action that may have given pretty good ignition a few years ago may fail to do so on a later-type ammunition. The only cure for this is a stiffer mainspring, if it is possible to get one stiff enough that will go into the action. If this is not possible, the speed-action will have to be replaced with a slower type having a longer firing-pin travel.

Main-springs of speed-actions often have to be replaced, because usually a very small let-down in mainspring strength on these actions will result in hang-fires and sometimes in misfires. For the same reason, firing-pin length should often be checked on these actions, as wear on the firing-pin will shorten it so that the impression it makes on the case head is too shallow. This should not happen if the pin is made of the proper steel and is properly hardened.

Excessive hcad-space causes a light firing-pin blow and poor ignition. In many rifle actions the forward travel of firing-pin is limited by a shoulder, as shown above.

Excess head-space seldom results in poor ignition, because before it becomes enough to cause this trouble, case heads will be blowing out due to not being properly supported. Excess head-space, however, does result in poor accuracy in the .22, because if the case head is not properly and very evenly supported the rifle does not group well. Most manufacturers of rifles try to keep excess head-space to not more than .003". The size of .22 rim-fire cases has been pretty well standardized by ammunition manufacturers, but dies for forming cases are subject to wear, so a certain small tolerance has to be allowed in the manufacture of cases. The rifle owner, however, should check head-space if the rifle does not group well. Steel shim stock that is used in garages can be bought cheaply from a garage and cut into small pieces, that can be placed upon the head of the cartridge and the action then closed upon it. As soon as the action closes with a slight effort, the shims can then be removed and measured with a micrometer to determine what the excess head-space amounts to, and if more than .002" to .003" it is too much. In fact, several brands of ammunition should be tried until one is found which shows no excess head-space and, if other things about the ammunition are equal, it should show better accuracy than a brand which shows excess head-space in that rifle. The single-shot falling breech-block and the bolt-action types should have no excess head-space, as these actions have ample power to close the breech on tight cartridges, but don't overdo this tightness so that the case head is crushed, or the priming mixture may be displaced and poor ignition will result. An ammunition that shows no excess head-space for one lot number may show it in another lot number, due to change of dies or different dies being used to turn out ammunition carrying different lot numbers, so after finding one lot number of ammunition that does well in the rifle, buy a quantity of it, and when in need again, buy single boxes of different lot numbers, to again try out the ammunition before buying a further supply.

As .22 rim-fire rifles are used more than all other calibers combined and, since the introduction of high-velocity rim-fire .22 cartridges, maintaining proper head-space has become important from a safety standpoint, simple and low-cost ways of taking care of wear in breech-block locking mechanisms are necessary.

Some of the popular slide-action .22 rim-fire rifles lock the breech-block into a notch in the receiver top, either on the inside of the top of the receiver or cut clear through the top of the receiver. The breechblocks themselves are often hardened, but the receivers are nearly always soft, and there is where the wear occurs. This low-cost repair is done in the same way as that to repair wear in cheap single and double shotguns, by peening the metal behind the locking-notch. As the inside of a .22 rim-fire receiver is too small to get a hammer into it, a heavy punch with a rounded end is placed on the metal of the receiver behind the notch into which the breech-block locks and, with the receiver lying upon a heavy piece of brass, this punch is struck with a hammer. Move the punch slightly and strike it again, repeating this process evenly across the receiver behind the notch, being careful not to do the peening too close to the locking notch or you may burr its edge.

This peening will swell forward the metal of the receiver, thus moving the rear face of the locking notch slightly forward, locking the breech-block closer against the rear end of the barrel. If, in this operation, the breech-block is caused to lock-up too tightly, a very fine file is used to cut back the edge of the notch slightly and, after using the file, the face of the notch is stoned with a hard Arkansas stone, to remove all file marks and leave the locking face smooth and polished.

In the bolt-action .22 rim-fires, the breech-bolt is often locked by the bolt handle turning down into a notch cut in the receiver wall. The inside of the receiver wall, just back of this locking notch, can sometimes be rcached with a rather slender, rounded-end punch by bending the punch slightly and putting it into the receiver through the top slot through which the bolt-handle travels, or up through the bottom opening in the receiver. The important point is near the bottom of this locking notch, usually the last quarter-inch. If it is impossible to get any punch in place to peen this receiver wall to stretch the metal forward into the notch, the rear face of this notch may be built forward with an electric welder, at small cost. After this is done, the notch must be dressed back with fine files arid then polished with the hard Arkansas stone until the bolt just closes nicely on a cartridge in the chamber.

If the bolt-action rifle has a lug upon the bolt, opposite to the bolt handle, which turns into a notch in the left receiver wall, this notch must also be peened forward, or welded, and both notches dressed so that the bolt handle and lug bear equally. A little prussian-blue or lamp-black mixed in oil and applied to the locking lugs in a very thin coat will show when both bear equally.

Badly enlarged chambers will usually show poor accuracy, due to the cartridge lying at the bottom of the chamber so that the bullet strikes the rifling on an angle when leaving the case, but usually before a chamber is enough oversize to give trouble from an accuracy standpoint, extraction troubles will have forced the purchase of a new barrel or at least the cutting of a new chamber.

Noncorrosive priming mixtures in use today do not all have the same chemical content and while, from a standpoint of danger of rust forming in the barrel if only one brand of ammunition is used without cleaning the barrel, cleaning is unnecessary, yet it is better to do this cleaning, for it may be forgotten in case another brand of ammunition is used and the mixture of the two different priming formulae may promote rust in the bore. Also, cleaning a bore through which lead bullets are fired will prevent any accumulation of lead from the bullets, for some barrels are slightly rough and will pick up lead readily. A brass brush is the best method to use to remove this lead fouling and if the brass brush is dipped in water or in some good barrel cleaning mixture, or protective grease such as Rig, it will take care of any primer fouling. If water is used as a cleaning medium, the barrel should be thoroughly dried by running dry patches through it afterwards and should then be oiled with an acid-free oil or gun grease.

If rust does gather in the bore to such an extent that it cannot be removed with a brass brush and gun oil, a mild abrasive, such as fine optical emery or crocus-powder on tight patches dipped in oil, should be used to remove it. If it is a bad enough case to require a coarser emery powder at first, followed by the fine grade mentioned, then the surface of the bore will be minutely pitted and thereafter the bore will have to be cleaned with a good brass brush each time much firing is done through it, for these pits will rapidly pick up lead and the rifle will be inaccurate. For a bad case of leading, a cork is placed in one end of the barrel, mercury is then poured in the opposite end and that end corked, and the barrel turned about by the hands for an hour or more until the liquid mercury reaches every part of the bore, so that it can amalgamate with the lead. The mixture is then poured out, the barrel cleaned with a brass brush and examined to see if the cleaning was complete, and if it is not then the mercury treatment must be repeated until the barrel is clean.

Dry (meaning unlubricated) ammunition should never be used, for this not only leads a barrel badly but also wears it very rapidly. One company manufacturing ammunition made a test of accurate barrel life for unlubricated ammunition and the decrease was about 90% compared to accurate barrel life with lubricated ammunition.

Bullets lodged in the barrel of a .22 rifle can usually be removed with a square (flat) ended rod of almost full-bore dimensions, provided the bullet has not remained in the barrel too long. A length of #3 drill-rod makes a good rod to remove bullets of .22 short, long or long-rifle size, and a length of #2 drill-rod works best in .22 Special and .22 W.R.F. barrels. The rod should be cut flat and smooth on one end in a lathe and this flat end placed against the base of the bullet, preferably, unless the bullet is lodged in the barrel much closer to the breech than to the muzzle, in which case the rod is placed against the point of the bullet. Before trying to drive the bullet out, oil the barrel well from each end with a thin oil, allowing it to stand above the bullet at one end for an hour, then reversing the barrel and pouring the oil in the opposite end to allow it to stand for another hour. After this, place the flat end of the rod against one end of the bullet and strike it a sharp blow with a good sized hammer, whereupon it will usually drive on out with repeated blows. If it moves a short distance and then sticks, drive it from the opposite end. If the bullet has been lodged in the barrel for some time and will not drive out, machine a point on one end of the drill-rod with a 60-degree included angle, like a center-punch, and center-punch the bullet at one end with the rod. A #4 wire-gauge drill is then brazed onto a piece of drill-rod, either #3 or #2, whichever one fits the barrel in question, and after the rod is straightened so that the drill runs true the bullet is drilled out from the end which was center punched. The remainder of the bullet is removed from the bore with stiff brass or bronze brushes of the Parker type and if necessary use the mercury treatment to get it all out. Never heat a barrel to try to melt a lead bullet from it, as the barrel will be ruined by this treatment.

Never leave rags or antirust ropes in the barrel, for they will almost surely rust tight if left there very long, they are the very devil to remove and usually arc not worth removing, for the barrel will nearly always be ruined. Rags or antirust ropes that are stuck in the barrel can be removed by picking them into pieces with a sharp-threaded wood-screw brazed to the end of a piece of steel rod. The scrcw is screwed a short distance into the cloth and then is yanked out by a straight pull on the rod. Pieces of the cloth dislodged are then shaken from the barrel and the process is repeated until all the cloth is removed. This method is faster and also safer than burning the rags out with a red-hot rod.

If a wooden rod is broken off in the barrel, the bore is oil-soaked, as directed for the removal of a bullet, and the square-ended piece of drill-rod is used to drive it from the barrel. If this fails, then the wood rod must be drilled out as was the bullet.

The .22 rifles sometimes refuse to feed cartridges from the magazine. This happens more often in the tubular magazine type than in the box magazine type. First, check the magazine spring to see that it is not broken, or cramped, or too weak. Next, make sure there is no dirt or pieces of metal in the magazine tube, then examine the outlet end through the frame to see that it is smooth. Also examine the magazine tube for dents. If these points are all in good condition the trouble is in the cartridge stop or carrier. Sec that the cartridge stop clears the tube opening perfectly when the action is operated and if it does not do so examine it for dirt, roughness and straightness. One of these things will be found wrong with it, if it fails to operate. If the cartridge stop is all right, examine the slot in the carrier into which the cartridge slides from the magazine. These are usually rough enough anyway at the edges, and a small additional nick that is not readily noticed can easily prevent the cartridge moving back fully into the slot. These nicks can be smoothed out with a fine file and if they are in a position where they can be reached with a small abrasive stone the final finishing can be done with this, if the stone will not .reach the spot, carborundum cloth may be used.

Consistent ignition is a deciding factor in developing the accuracy of any .22 rim-fire rifle and it is necessary that both gunsmith and rifle owner give close attention to the profile of the firing-pin point, its protrusion from the face of the breech-block, the percussion developed by hammer impact and the fit of the firing-pin in the breechblock. Also, the point of impact on the case rim is of vital importance.

These figures on Plate XIV are intended to represent certain faults and virtues of different firing-pin arrangements and types.

"A" is the .22 rim-firc case head, unfircd. The entire circumference of the inside of the rim is filled with the priming mixture, spread as evenly as possible around the rcccss with some inadvertently getting smeared across the head of the case. To secure proper ignition, some segment of this primed rim must be crushed between the firing-pin and the "anvil" of the rifle barrel—and this crushing must be done suddenly and evenly from shot to shot, with the cartridge held solidly against the "anvil" with no cushioning nr movement.

"B" illustrates a dangerous condition through the use of a firing-pin having too sharp a profile. This is a quite common type of emergency firing-pin, made up in a hurry by the use of an 8d or lOd round wire nail. It is extremely dangerous, especially with the new hi-power type .22 cartridge, as pierced he-ads, with their accompanying gas-spurt, are certain to occur.

"C" shows wrong point of impact. Too far inside case head, rim cannot be smashed and misfires certain to predominate*

"D" is also a poor arrangement. Protrusion is too great and hammer-blow too heavy, tending to burst the rim of the case upon firing. Point of impact is a bit too far inside case head.

"E" is about right for round-end firing-pin—but this is not an especially good profile to use.

"F" is a poor arrangement—chisel-pointed pin with sharp edges which cause many split rims with accompanying gas-spurts.

"G" illustrates insufficient protrusion or percussion. Impact is too weak to crush case rim together and detonate priming.

"H" is correct for round-end firing-pin, better point of impact than "E."

"I" is correct impact for narrow, fiat-end firing-pin—and this is about the best type of all.

"J" is correct for the round, flat-ended pin.

Plate XIV

(Descriptions given on opposite page.)

If the carrier has been bent so that the cartridge slot is partially closed, remove the carrier from the rifle, place in a vise with padded jaws, then insert a round, straight punch or a piece of steel rod in the cartridge slot and straighten it up.

If the carrier fails to rise when the action is worked, it is probably broken and must be replaced with a new one.

Bent carrier of a repeating action. Tlie hole is closed so that the cartridge cannot enter from the magazine.

When cartridges fail to feed from a box magazine, if the spring is all right, see that the cartridge platform does not cramp in the magazine and see that the magazine walls are free of dents. If all these points are all right the trouble is probably in the lips of the magazine. They are either bent, or a cartridge has been forced into the magazine from the wrong point, in loading, and has perhaps made a burr on one of the edges. If no burr is found, the lips of the magazine are bent and must be straightened. If the bend is a short one it can usually be easily detected but if it is a rather long gradual one it is sometimes hard to find. If a second magazine in good condition is available, a steel scale may be laid along the sides of the bent magazine, at different points, and then laid on the good magazine at the same points and the bend located in this manner. If no other magazine is available, the steel scale may be laid along first one side and then the other of the faulty magazine and the defect sometimes is shown up by this method. In straightening the lips of a magazine, pliers with smooth jaws should be used but if none are at hand, pieces of thin coppcr may be bent over the jaws of grooved-jaw pliers, so that the magazine's lips will not be scored.

These box magazines are often held in place in the rifle with a catch that engages a notch cut in the magazine and both the catch and the notch sometimes wear, allowing the magazine to drop too low for the bolt to pick off the top cartridge. To remedy this, the catch may be replaced by a slightly longer one, cut from a piece of steel or the old catch may be heated to a low-red heat, near the end, and drawn out a little longer with a hammer, after which it can be filed to the proper length. Sometimes a new magazine is necessary, as all the wear may be on the cut for the catch in the magazine.

Trigger-pulls on our .22 rifles, especially those not strictly designed for target shooting, leave something to be desired. Usually the pull is entirely too long and is seldom smooth enough for good off-hand work, which requires a very much better trigger-pull than rest or prone shooting. The set-trigger is really the ideal one for off-hand work, not necessarily the ultra light double-set pull, but a good single-set with adjustable pull.

If the trigger-pull is not satisfactory in the .22 rifle, examine the trigger parts to sec if the hammer or the firing-pin, if it is a bolt-action rifle, is cammed back by pulling the trigger. If this is the case, carefully grind the sear nose, or cocking notch, or both if necessary, until there is no movement whatever to the hammer or firing-pin when the trigger is slowly drawn back. Once this is accomplished, examine the contact surfaces of the sear nose and cocking notch with a good mag nifying glass, to locate all rough spots. The faces of the sear and cocking notch, besides being of mirror smoothness, should be absolutely flat and straight, so that the bearing of one upon the other is full, clear across them. One of the surfaces may be coated with prussian-blue and the parts assembled to check for high spots, the blue showing up these spots clearly.

Clamp the part showing high spots between two rectangular pieces of steel in the bench vise, so that the surface to be trued-up is just slightly above the surfaces of the two pieces of steel. These steel pieces will prevent a rounded surface being developed on the sear nose or hammer notch being stoned. A small carborundum stone is used to dress down the surface of the part, until it is as flat as possible. The white Arkansas stone is then used to give the surface a high polish. Here again, use that magnifying glass, to make sure that you have missed none of the surface in the polishing process. If the surface is perfect, then use the white Arkansas stone to just round the edge which contacts the other part, so that the extreme sharpness of the edge is removed. Now, coat this surface with the prussian-blue, assemble the trigger mechanism again and cock the gun, after which disassemble the parts again, and the high spots will show up on the second part, then they may be stoned off and the surface polished and the edge rounded, as was done with the first pari. The frontispiece shows this operation.

Usually in the hammer, or so-called hammerlcss actions with the inside hammer, the engagement of the sear nose in the hammer notch is not too deep, but if the trigger-pull is entirely too long from the fact that this notch is too deep, a % c" hole can be drilled into the body of the hammer at the back of the notch, a pin is then driven tightly into this hole and the outer end filed off to shorten the pin enough so that the sear nose is just allowed to engage the hammer notch a short distance. The shorter this engagement of the sear in the hammer notch, the shorter the trigger-pull will be, but try it carefully, with the gun empty, by cocking the hammer and striking the butt sharply on a wood floor or heavy piece of wood if the rifle has a steel butt-plate. If the butt-plate is of hard rubber, hold the rifle in one hand and strike the side of the butt stock sharply several times with the heel of the other hand, to make sure that the sear will not be jarred from its seat in the hammer notch. If the rifle is a repeating type, operate the action rapidly, a number of times, with the gun empty, trying it. each time the action is operated, to make sure that the sear catches properly in the hammer notch. If it jars off or fails to catch a single time file the pin a little shorter, to give the sear a deeper hold in the hammer notch, for one accident is all that is necessary and death is so final.

The bolt-actions very often have a far deeper engagement of the sear nose in the cocking notch than is necessary and the best remedy on these is to grind down the top of the sear, to shorten its depth in the cocking notch. The speed-actions generally do not have too deep an engagement of the sear in the cocking notch, and usually trueing up the engaging surfaces and bringing them to a high polish is all that is necessary to give them a good trigger-pull.

Shortening the sear or trigger spring slightly, or replacing it with a lighter one, will very often improve the trigger-pull greatly, but be sure that the spring remains strong enough to return the sear fully to its seat in the cocking notch each time when it is only partially withdrawn and the trigger is again released without completing the pull. Try this a number of times without completing the pull any time, for this is a vital point of safety and that sear must return to its full depth of seat each time.

If the trigger and sear are two separate parts, so that the trigger has a fulcrum point that rests against the receiver or some other part to get the necessary leverage to draw down the sear, polish this fulcrum of the trigger and the part on which it rests to a very high polish, so that as little friction as possible is developed at this point. The .22 Springfield rifle is a good example of this type of trigger-pull. Coating the trigger, sear and cocking-notch surfaces with Gunslick, made by the Outer's Laboratories, Onalaska, Wisconsin, working the parts against each other for several minutes and then wiping off the excess grease will smooth up the working surfaces quite a bit.

Iron sights supplied on .22 rifles today arc far superior to those that were standard equipment a few years ago but they still do not always answer the purpose of the shooter. All types of special sights can be purchased from Lyman, Marble, Wittek, Pacific and Rcdficld gun sight companies and the Merit Gun Sight Co. of 3764 Ruby St., Oakland, California, sells an iris shutter peep-sight disc for $2.2S by which the size of aperture can be changed instantly. Special designs of front sights that are easily made are often desirable for special purposes. The cross-wire mounted in a short section of tube for use in small game shooting is one example of this. A short scction of steel tube can be made by drilling a hole through a short length of to Yi" steel rod and fine wire such as that obtainable from an old Ford coil can be stretched across the tube to form a cross, passing the wire through four small holes drilled through the wall at equidistant points and the wires soldered to the outside of the tube. Instead of running one wire horizontally and one vertically they may be crossed at 45-degrees from the vertical and horizontal points. Also a dot may be placcd on the intersection of the wires, by dipping the end of a fine wire into Dupont cement and placing a small dot of it on the intersection of the wires. A

single horizontal cross-wire with a dot of cement upon it at the center may he used instead of the cross-wires. These wire-type iron sights are only practical where the shooting is to be done in good light against a background on which the sight will show up well, but under these conditions they are very accurate.

The flat-topped, small, half-round notch, open sight such as the Savage Company used to supply on some of the model '99 rifles is an excellent type of open rear sight to use in connection with a bead front sight. Any open-type rear sight can be converted to this type by drilling a small hole through a piece of light black sheet-steel, then filing down one edge until half the hole is filed away, leaving a semicircular notch. The piece is then put in nitric-acid and left there until it turns a dull gray-black color, after which one side is polished and the rear face of the regular rear sight is polished, both are tinned with solder and they are then sweated together.

Avoid the vee-shaped notch rear open sight, as they are useless for anything except the very coarsest work at close range, due to the shooter's inability to hold the front sight at the same elevation each time in this type of notch. The Patridge type sights are very poor for any shooting except paper target work, unless the light is very good, due to the trouble of holding the proper elevation against varying backgrounds. This can be corrected by setting in a piece of white celluloid on the rear face of the front sight at the top. See the chapter on making sights for directions on how to do this.

Special apertures for rear sights are easily made in the lathe from pieces of steel rod. The rod should be about the diameter you wish the eye-cup to be. The shank, to be threaded %2"x40 threads per inch, is turned and threaded, with the lathe, upon one end. This end is then drilled out, while still in the lathe, to a larger size than the aperture, to within of the face of the eye-cup. A small drill, of the size the aperture is desired, is then used to drill the hole on through the face of the eye-cup. The piece is cut off and then held in the lathe chuck by the threaded shank while the eye-cup end is machined out. These aperture cups can be placed in nitric-acid and left there until the surface is a gray-black, after which they are removed from the acid, rinsed in running water and boiled for a few minutes in clean water to stop further action by the acid. If a deeper blue color is desired on them, they may then be heated to just under a red-heat, so that their color is a deep black. Hold them at this heat for a minute or more, then dip them in a light oil, such as gun oil, for about one second, lift them from the oil and hold them in the air for eight or ten seconds, then return them to the oil and allow them to cool in it.

The low-power telescope of three to five power makes an ideal sight for the small game .22 rifle and, thanks to a few of our progressive telescope sight makers, these scopes may be bought for less money than a high grade set of iron sights. If most of the small game shooting is to be open field work on chucks, prairie dogs or picket pins, the five power sight with medium fine cross-wires of .001" or a little less in diameter, will be the best choice. For squirrel shooting in tall hardwood trees, the three power scope with a narrow flat-top post will be the best. The higher power scopes are only adapted to prone or rest shooting for target work or long distance work on small game in the open. Colonel Whelen s "Telescopic Rifle Sights" is an excellent guide in choosing the telescopc and it should be well studied before making your first purchase.

The scope manufacturers supply directions for attaching the scopes to the rifle with each scope, but the directions sent with side-mounted scopes are not quite as complete as they could be. In the directions sent with scopes of internal adjustment for windage or elevation, or both, these directions tell you how to center the internal adjustments and state that with adjustments centered, as they are supposed to be when shipped from the factory, the mount with the scope in it is clamped on the side of the riñe and the rifle is then bore-sighted upon some object 50 to 100 yards away. The rifle must be held in a vise or clamp of some kind while it is bore-sighted and then, without moving the position of the rifle, the mount is moved around on the rifle until the scope's aiming point coincides with the point upon which the rifle is bore-sighted. The clamps holding the mount upon the rifle are then drawn tight and the position of the screw-holes on the rifle are marked through the holes for these screws in the mount.

Finding something to bore-sight the rifle on while it is held in a vise or clamp is not always easy to do at a distance of 50 or more yards. Also the bore of the rifle is somewhat too large to do this bore-sighting with much accuracy. This work can be done better in the shop, at a distance of a few yards or feet.

If a smooth wall is not available a short distance from the bench vise, set up a smooth board, vertically, a few feet from the vise, and at about the height of the vise, tack a sheet of paper on the board and mark a cross, about 1" in length each way, upon the paper. Clamp the rifle in the vise, with padded jaws, train it upon the cross marked on the paper and level the rifle both ways with a small level. Make a cap that will just push over the muzzle of the rifle by hand, with no shake when it is in placc. Make this cap with a hole in the outer end larger than the bore of the rifle. If you have a piece of tubing that will just push onto the muzzle end of the barrel, this will do as well as a made-up cap, as it doesn't matter how much larger than the bore of the rifle the hole in the cap is made. Across this hole in the cap stretch cross-wires and solder them in place. These wires can be any diameter up to about .005". Set the cap so that one wire is vertical and the other is horizontal, to match the cross on the paper. Adjust the rifle in the vise until the cross-wires on the cap coincide with those on the paper and keep the rifle leveled in the vise, both ways. When this adjustment is complete tighten the vise to hold the rifle in place.

The scope, within its mount, is now clamped on the side of the rifle and adjusted until it is apparently central over the bore. Measure the distance the center of the scope is above the center of the rifle bore and make a dot or a cross upon the paper this same distance above the first cross on the paper, keeping the two marks in line vertically. Then screw the elevation adjustment of the scope as far down as it will go and now look through the scope and move the mount the necessary distance to make the aiming point of the scope coincide with the second aiming point on the paper, after which the clamps holding the scope mount on the rifle are tightened up, both aiming points are again checked, and the position of the screw-holes for the mount arc marked on the rifle, according to the manufacturer's directions of how to mount the scope.

This same method is used to mount scopes on larger center-fire rifles but in this case it is best to drill the primer pocket out of an empty cartridge case and insert this case in the breech of the rifle to act as a rear aperture while bore-sighting the rifle.

The mounting of target scopes in target mounts with base blocks on the .22 rifles is a simple matter, as the mount manufacturer will supply base of the proper height for the rifle and it is only necessary to level up the rifle in a vise, or in vee-blocks upon a surface plate or sheet of plate-glass, and set the blocks on the barrel at the proper place so that the scope can be drawn back to the eye, and the proper distance apart. The blocks are then leveled and clamped to the barrel with machinist's parallel clamps so that they act as guides for the drill and tap, to tap the screw holes into the barrel for the base blocks. A #27 wire-gauge drill is first used to spot the holes, as this drill fits the holes in the blocks closely. The #31 wire-gauge drill is then used to drill the holes to depth to be tapped out for the screws. The main point where great care is necessary in this job is not to drill too deeply into the barrel.

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Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

There are a lot of things that either needs to be repaired, or put together when youre a homeowner. If youre a new homeowner, and have just gotten out of apartment style living, you might want to take this list with you to the hardware store. From remolding jobs to putting together furniture you can use these 5 power tools to get your stuff together. Dont forget too that youll need a few extra tools for other jobs around the house.

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