If the case-hardening is very thin it can often be penetrated with a heavy center-punch. In this case, the hole center is carefully marked and the center-punch placed thereon and struck a heavy blow. The drill is then started at low speed, using turpentine for a lubricant, and as long as the point of the drill does not contact the steel, the lips of the drill will cut. The center-punch is driven into the hole several times, as the drilling proceeds, so that the center of the hole is kept depressed below the reach of the drill point. Another method to drill this case-hardening is to soften it with heat at the points to be drilled. The best method to do this is by using an automobile storage battery. Use two heavy cables, such as old starter cables; attach one cable to some part of the receiver with a heavy cable clip or a clamp and attach a sunlamp carbon to the loose end of the other cable (the positive lead is best for this) and touch this carbon point to one of the spots to be drilled. The carbon immediately becomes white-hot at the point and softens the case-hardening. The place for the second hole is then touched with the carbon and softened, and the drilling may proceed. Do not try this with A.C. house current unless you have a very heavily fused line and a variable control coil, in which case (after some experimenting and blown fuses) you may accomplish it.
Dental drills may be used to drill steel that is so tough or hard that even high-speed twist drills will not drill it. The ball shape is the best one to use. These are used in a drill press at low speed with a very slow feed, as they will not cut fast. After a small hole is opened up in tough steel with one of these dental drills, the hole can usually be enlarged to the required size with a high-speed steel twist drill running at low speed. These dental drills will not, however, start to cut on case-hardened steel any better than a twist drill.
Telescope sight base blocks or mounts may be squared up on a rifle by using a small level. First, level the action while the rifle is held by the barrel in the padded jaws of a vise, then place your first block, level it and clamp it in place, drill and tap the holes, using the block clamped on the barrel with a parallel clamp as a drill guide for the spotting drill, after which
Illustrating how barrel is held in padded vise jaws while receiver is leveled with a small level, which later is used to level the telescopic base block on top of the round barrel.
the tap-drill is used, and, with the block still in place to act as a guide, the holes are tapped. The barrel is set in vee-blocks on the drill press to drill these holes and the barrel squared-up with a small level on top of the block, as the block has been clamped in the correct position on the barrel while the rifle was leveled in the vise. In the case of side mounts that separate from the clamping rings of the scope, a square with a level in it can be used to square-up the mount that attaches to the side of the gun. The surface plate may also be used to square-up scope base blocks or side mounts by setting up the barrel and action on parallels and vee-blocks, or vee-blocks alone, and using a square on the plate to square-up the side mounts, and a square on the plate and a small square on top of the block to square up base blocks.
For setting scope base blocks the proper distance apart, steel scales may be obtained graduated in tenths of an inch for part of their length. These are only obtainable in six-inch lengths now and as base blocks
Rcccivcr of light rifle held, leveled, in machine vise jaws while top fastening side mount of the Lyman type for light telescopes is squared on top of the barrel with a cross test level.
may need to be 7.20" apart, center to center, it will be necessary to clamp a short rule, a 2" one, to the end of the 6" rule. These can be clamped together with a small parallel clamp if you use rules of the same thickness, the width being immaterial as each rule is run in half the width of the clamp jaws and butted against the end of the other rule with their front edges in the same line.
Telescopes sometimes need repairs, and unless you are sure of what you are doing, they had better be sent to their makers or to some expert who specializes in scope repairs but sometimes it is necessary to make certain repairs on the spot, due to the time element involved and if you are careful this can be done.
A simple trouble of the double lens cemented type, when they become old, is the separating of the two lens that are cemented together, either the objective or the ocular and sometimes both sets. The first evidence of this is small stars appearing in the lens which
Removing a threaded telescope lens-retaining ring with a short piccc of hack saw blade held in a pair of flat-jawed pliers.
is sometimes caused by the scope being subjected to high heat, such as leaving it where the hot summer sun strikes directly on the lens for some time. When this occurs, the lens and holder are unscrewed from the scope barrel and upon examining the inside you will see a thin brass ring, with two notches in its outer edge, that is screwed down against the lens to hold it in place. Cut a piece of hack-saw blade just the exact length to reach clear across the lens holder from side to side, not quite touching the threads. Carefully place this, smooth edge down, into the two notches in the brass ring and, using a pair of thin but strong-jawed pliers, carefully unscrew this ring, being careful not to let the piece of hack-saw blade slip out of the notches. After this is removed, if the lens does not easily push out with your finger, place it upon a soft cloth upon a bench or table with the outer surface of
Spot annealing a hardened steel rcccivcr to soften it for drilling, using a storage battery and a carbon point. In annealing casc-hardcncd or heat treated actions in small spots for drilling and tapping holes by which to mount receiver sights or scopc mounts, the negative pole of a six-volt storage battery is conncctcd by a heavy cable to some part of the action, using a heavy spring clamp to make this connection. The positive pole of the battery also has a heavy cable attached to it, upon the other end of which is a clamp with an insulated handle to hold a sun lamp carbon. This carbon point is held on cach spot to be annealed for one to two minutes« during which lime the point of the carbon becomes almost white hot.
the lens up, place on the lens a small cushion of several thicknesses of cloth, and, using a flat-end stick of soft wood smaller in diameter than the lens, press the lens out of its holder or cell.
Balsam gum is used to cement the two lens together and if there is an optical company near by, take thiis lens to them to have them separate the two parts and re-cement it. If there is no optical firm available, heat an iron plate to a low heat and carefully lay the lens upon it. As soon as the heat has softened up the balsam used for cement, carefully separate the two parts of the lens, using only your fingers, but protect them from being burned by putting a cloth over them. After the lens has cooled, soak the old balsam off of them with benzine, using a soft, clean cloth like an old handkerchief to wipe them clean and dry. Obtain some fresh balsam gum from the druggist and, carefully heating the two parts of the lens again on the iron plate, put a small amount of the gum in the cupped lens and let it melt. Now lay the other part of the lens in place upon the cupped part and, using a small stick of soft pine, preferably white pine, work the second part of the lens back and forth and around on the first lens, evenly distributing the balsam gum between the two parts and working the excess out of the edges. It may be necessary to set the lens back on the heated plate during this operation, to keep the balsam thin enough. After you have it as thin as you can get it between the two parts of the lens, and you are sure there are no air bubbles in it, see that the edges of the two parts of the lens line up perfectly and then set it aside to cool. After it is cool, place some melted beeswax on the threads, inside the lens cell at the point where the lens rested, replace the lens in the cell and screw the notched brass ring up against it carefully with a firm pressure but be careful not to overdo it and crack a lens. The excess beeswax is removed with a sharpened, soft, pine stick and the surfaces of the lens are cleaned by blowing and brushing with a camels-hair brush. This is also the proper method to remove dust from a lens, do not use a cloth to do this or you will scratch the lens.
In case no fresh balsam gum is available and the old gum is not badly starred or the lens parts have not separated enough to let dirt get between them, the lens can be gently heated as you did to separate the two parts, then instead of separating them they can be worked around upon each other as you did after putting in the new balsam gum, and if there is sufficient gum remaining between the two parts of the lens to spread around between them, the two parts can be re-cemented with the original gum without separating.
Reticules in scopes are sometimes broken and must be replaced. If a post reticule is broken, which seldom happens, obtain the very finest steel embroidery needle that you can get and if it is to replace a fiat-topped post, stone the point off of the needle squarely, examining it under a powerful magnifying glass to see that it is square. After removing the rear lens from the scope loosen the reticule cell and remove that. You can then remove the broken post from the reticule cell and, cutting off the needle to the correct length, solder it in place where the original post was soldered, being careful to keep it in the center of the cell.
If the reticule to be replaced is a cross-wire type and you have wire of the desired size in platinum or steel, solder it in place or if the material you have is non-metallic, use Dupont cement to fasten it in place. The cross-wire is stretched across the ring to which it is fastened and a small spring paper clip with a rubber band around the jaws is hung on each end of the wire to keep it taut while being soldered or cemented. In case cement is used, leave the clips hanging upon it for twelve hours.
Platinum and steel wire may be obtained in fine enough size to use for reticule cross-wires. The size of this wire for cross-hairs may vary from .0005" (very fine) to .002" (very coarse). A medium fine cross-wire will be .0007" to .001" in diameter.
Steel cross-wires stretched over the reticule of a telescope, to be soldered in place. Spring paper clips on each end of the wires stretch them by the weight of the clips.
If steel or platinum wire is not available and you have no supply of other type of cross-wire material, a fresh spider-web may be used. The best way to get this is to find a spider-web that is in use and destroy most of it. In a few hours Mr. Spider will have it rebuilt and you can take some of the fresh-built web to make into cross-wires. Spiders come in various sizes and degrees of efficiency, and it may pay you to look about and find various kinds of web to use for your cross-wires. Field spiders are supposed to spin a finer and stronger web than house spiders. I under
stand that the cross-hairs for fine surveying instruments are made from the web of field spiders. Women's hair, if of sufficient fineness, can be used. I say women's hair, as this is nearly always finer than a man's hair and by careful selection can often be obtained as fine as .001". Human hair is quite elastic and will stand a good deal. I have been told that certain types of real silk thread may be separated finely enough to get material for very fair cross-wires, but I have never tried it out.
If none of the above materials appeal to you or if they are unobtainable in the size desired, spider threads, taken from the cocoon of the spider, may be used. Late in August and early in September the large yellow field spider with a cross on its back spins its cocoon in the fields. This cocoon is a round, brownish ball, found on golden rod and blackberry bushes. It should be cut open and thoroughly steamed to kill the eggs inside. Between the egg sack and the outer shell is a fine cushion of reddish down. This is the part to use for cross-wires.
Take a wire hairpin and spread the ends so that the distance between them is about inch greater than the diameter of the reticule cell, then place a small ball of beeswax on each of the ends of the hairpin. With a small needle, pick out one loose end of thread from the cocoon and, letting the cocoon hang down, wrap this end five or six times around one of the beeswax balls on one end of the hairpin. Now turn over the hairpin so that the thread comes around the other end of it, wrap it around this end about six turns and then pull off the cocoon. Hang this hairpin, with the spider thread stretched across it, some distance above a small vessel of boiling water and let it steam for fifteen minutes, so that it will absorb ail the moisture it will take up. This is to prevent the thread becoming slack on a wet day, after it is in place in the scope.
Now take hold of the back end of the hairpin and, with the reticule cell lying flat on the table and with fine marks scored across it at right-angles to each other, lay the thread in place across one pair of these scores. The back end of the hairpin should lie upon
Cross-wires being made of spider cocoon stretched over the reticule of a telescope between the waxed ends of a heavy hairpin, ready to be cemented in place.
the table but the front ends, to which the thread is attached, should be clear of the table top. It may be necessary to place a coin or two under the reticule cell so that the ends holding the thread do clear the table top, thus stretching the thread tightly across the cell. Use the magnifying glass to make certain the thread lies in the scores cut across the cell. If not, take a needle and gently place it there. Put a minute quantity of collodion or DuPont cement in these scores of the cell, on top of the thread. After ten minutes, cut the ends of the thread, place a new piece between the ends of the hairpin and put the second cross-wire or thread in position on the cell, in the other pair of scores.
This spider thread is very fine and you may break a dozen before you get your cross-wires in place, but when you do get them there you will have a fine pair of cross-hairs of great uniformity.
Spider-web cross-hairs are entirely practical, but only in low-power scopes. They are used by many individuals and by the leading makers of transits. Some years ago Fecker wrote an article about cross-hairs in which he recommended the silk from the spider's cocoon, so T got some spider-web and some of the cocoon and saw at once why he recommended the latter. The web is much too heavy for target scope use, I could find none below .00175" which, in a high power scope, covers about 4" at one hundred yards. The silk of the cocoon, according to Fecker, runs an even .0005".
Woman's hair is easier to obtain than either spider web or cocoon silk, can be found down to about .0015" and is very elastic. I have often used it myself and it is excellent, but too heavy for anything over a three-power scope. I have replaced cross-hairs in transits and found that the ones put in them by the factories are too heavy for target scopes. I now use a material which I buy from R. A. Litschert, Winchester, Indiana; this runs from .00075" to .001" in diameter, and 50<* worth will last quite a long while. I don't know what material it is made of but it looks to be some kind of vegetable fibre and it can be cemented in with either DuPont cement or finger-nail enamel. I have a Persian cat that has an under-fur which runs .0005" in diameter and this would be ideal except that it is brittle and has little tensile strength. There may be other fine-furred animals whose fur has a higher tensile strength so that it can be used—but a target shooter would crown you for putting spider-web cross-hairs in his 15X scope.
Dents may be removed from a scope tube or a bent tube straightened, after removing all lenses and the reticule cell, by inserting a steel rod inside the tube. This rod should be a very close fit in the tube and the end inserted in the tube should be rounded at the edge and well smoothed-up, so that it cannot dig into the wall of the tube. A fiber-faced or composition-
faced hammer can be used on the outside to tap the dents out of the tube against the rod inside the tube. As these tubes are thin and soft, dents are easily removed and the hammering should be light taps, not heavy blows, as this would stretch the tube.
Front sight ramps are of two different general patterns, one a straight-blade type, cut to the contour of the barrel on the bottom and soldered and screwed to the barrel, the other a band-type, with the band, which is part of the ramp, encircling the barrel and either pinned or keyed in place on the barrel.
The first type is the simplest to make, merely being a flat piece of steel cut on the bottom with a radius cutter of the right size in a milling machine, the tail milled off at the correct angle and matted or cross-grooved, and a slot cut for the type of sight being used, either a blade or dovetail type. This type is soldered to the barrel but it had also better be held in place with a screw beneath the sight, tapped into the barrel. A ¿£6 screw, 48 threads to the inch, with fillister head like a scope base block screw, is the best type to use. The position of the ramp is marked on the barrel, the blueing scraped off within the lines and the barrel tinned at this point. The bottom of the ramp is tinned and the ramp is then put into position on the barrel, the #6 x48 screw, for which a hole has been drilled and tapped into the barrel, is then put through the ramp and the ramp is drawn up tightly on the barrel with it. A piece of copper is placed on the tail of the ramp, near the rear end, and a parallel clamp is used to draw this part of the ramp down tightly on the barrel. The ramp is heated with a torch until the solder starts to run, and then both the screw through the ramp and the clamp on the tail are again tightened up and the ramp and barrel allowed to cool. Any solder that escapes from beneath the ramp onto the blued portion of the barrel is easily removed, when cold, without any injury to the blueing on the barrel.
If a milling machine is not available, this type of ramp can be made accurately with a lathe, although both the base contour and the sight slot must be cut by hand. A piece of steel, of the right width and thickness, is filed on the bottom to the barrel contour and a line scribed on one side from the rear end of the
Left sketch shows blade-type ramp, ready to be soldered or soldered and screwed to the barrel. Right shows how such a ramp sight is held between adjacent jaws of the lathe chuck in order to face off the tail and cross-groove it.
straight portion at the front to the rear end near the bottom, showing the slope of the tail. This sloped portion is then roughed off with a hack-saw or grinder. Now placc the front portion of the ramp between two adjacent jaws of a rather heavy three or four-jaw chuck in the lathe, with the jaws in the position to hold work internally, and have these jaws faced with copper so that they will not cut the sides of the ramp. Arrange the ramp so that the line scribed upon one side showing the tail slope is at right-angles to the center-line of the lathe. Now face-off the tail of the ramp to the line just as you would face any piece of steel, then, using a sharp-pointed tool bit, set to cut about .007" deep on the tail slope of the ramp, gear the lathe so that this bit moves about .015" per revolution of the spindle and, starting the lathe in gear, the bit will cross-rib the ramp tail.
Band-type ramp cut from solid block of steel.
In making the band-type ramp, a piece of steel thick enough to make the band and ramp in one piece is drilled from end to end, slightly under the diameter of the barrel, and then is reamed to the diameter of the barrel at the muzzle. This is then put in the milling machine vice and the sides of ramp are milled off to leave the ramp the correct thickness, but the cut is not made quite through to the hole drilled through the block. The piece is then set vertically in the vise of the miller, with the part that is to be the band held in the vice jaws, and a light cut made at each side cuts the bottom away from the ramp tail back of the band or the ramp may be held upside down in the vise of the miller and the bottom milled off behind the band. The tail slope is milled off and the ramp grooved with a sharp vee-cutter, then a corner-rounding cutter of the right size removes the corners around the band. This type of ramp will require some hand filing and polishing to turn the band out perfectly.
A second method of making the band-type ramp is to weld a piece of flat steel lengthwise of a piece of shelby steel tubing, then mill off the slope of the ramp tail and mill away the tubing, leaving only a short band at the front. This will require quite a bit of hand finishing where the weld is made.
Barrel bands are best made from thick-walled shelby tubing or from any piece of solid steel by boring or
Barrel bands. A is front swivel band, cut from heavy-walled shelby steel tubing. B is band for open-type rear sight made from same material. C is makeup of a swivel barrel band with base, to go inside of forearm. Rand is of spring steel, fastened to base block with four small screws.
drilling and reaming the hole for the barrel. The excess metal is roughed off with a hack-saw, leaving a heavy part on bottom or top or both, depending upon what the purpose is of the band. After these have been roughed to shape, they can be finished more closely by grinding and then completed with files and carborundum cloth. All polishing of these bands should be done lengthwise of the barrel, so that after being blued they match barrel finish as near as possible.
If a tool post grinder is available for the lathe, the finishing time on these bands made from tubing or solid stock may be cut down by mounting the band on
an arbor between centers on the lathe, putting a rather coarse wheel on the tool post grinder and grinding the band down to the finishing point. The arbor is allowed to turn free on the stationary lathe centers but a dog is attached to one end of the arbor so that it. may be turned back and forth by hand, so that the band is ground down all around except at the heavy part left for insertion of sling-swivel screw, or rear sight, or what have you. The grinding is only done while the band is being turned slowly in a direction opposite to that in which the grinding wheel is running. On the return motion of the arbor and band the wheel is slightly backed off.
Bands with a heavy part or projection on top of the barrel are often used to hold open rear sights, the dovetail slot for the sight being cut in the heavy part of the band rather than in the barrel itself. In this case, a heavy part is usually left on the bottom of the band also, so that a screw may be tapped in here to seat in a shallow cup on the under side of the barrel, to keep the band in position and prevent any rotation while moving the sight from side to side in the slot for adjustment.
Barrel bands with a heavy part on the bottom are used to hold forearms to barrels, either with a screw only or with a sling-swivel screw, or they may be used to hold the sling-swivel only, either being set on the barrel ahead of the forearm or being set within the forearm with clearance in the forearm all around the sling-swivel screw.
A rapid way to make barrel bands with the heavy part on the bottom only is to use a piece of thin steel like an old phonograph or large clock spring, annealed, and passed around the barrel and fastened with four small screws, #4 or #5 machine screws, to a steel block, shaped with a half-round file to fit the contour of the barrel. This type of band may be put on or re moved from a barrel without having to remove ramps or high front sights.
Another type of band with the heavy part beneath the barrel can be made by using a piece of tubing just slightly larger in outer diameter than the outer diameter of the band wanted and with an internal diameter slightly smaller than the barrel. This piece of tubing is brazed or welded to a steel block and is then reamed out to fit the barrel and finished on the outside.
Barrel bands should be fitted closely to the barrel about two inches ahead of the point where they arc to be finally seated and then peened lightly all around to stretch them, so that they can be tapped back to the point of final fitting. In case the band is quite thin, such as the clock spring type mentioned, this peening had better be done with a composition-faced hammer such as the Stanley Company puts out, so that the surface of the band is not marred or it will have to be polished down thinner for finishing.
Sling-swivels can be made by turning a screw from cold-rolled, round, bar steel of y$" diameter or more, leaving a head of about the same length as the diameter of the stock used. The shank is threaded to screw into whatever base the swivel is to be fastened to, a barrel band, or a nut set flush inside the forearm, and the head is then drilled for the sling loop.
The sling loop is made from or a little heavier round, bessemer-steel rod, as this steel is quite soft and will not crack when closely bent. The copper plating on this rod can be easily removed with a little carborundum cloth before shaping the loop. To shape the loop, set a piece of flat steel upright in the vise and either catch one end of the rod between the vise jaw and one side of the piece of steel, or clamp one end of the rod to the steel with a clamp, or put it into a tight-fitting hole drilled in the steel and then wind the rod around the steel, tapping it on the edges lightly to square the bend slightly. Be sure to wind the rod closely around the steel, keeping the coils close together like a spring wound with closed coils. The
How bessemer-steel rod is wound around a piece of flat steel, to form sling loops.
coils can be sawed down one of the flat sides of the steel piece and they will then drop off as individual loops.
A small hole is drilled through the head of the swivel screw at right-angles to and in the same plane as the hole drilled for the loop. This hole need not be larger than and after the loop is put in place in the head of the swivel screw, with its ends clearing each other by y1(a small pin is driven tightly into this Yx6" hole and the ends finished off flush with the sides of the swivel screw head. This pin will prevent the loop moving from side to side in the head of the swivel screw.
Butt sling-swivels may be made of the plate type, such as the government uses, or a wood screw shank may be made in the lathe, with a head matching the front swivel, from round bar stock. A round-nose tool, rather narrow, is used to cut the thread in the lathe and the twist is rapid but the thread is shallow. The small pin is used to hold the loop in its base, as was done with the front swivel.
Quick-detachable swivels, several designs of which arc upon the market, are usually simple in construction and the simpler they are the better they will usually be. The main thing in a quick-detachable swivel for use on a game rifle is quietness, meaning lack of rattle, which is where most of them fail. There is one design upon the market which, while not as rapidly dctachcd as some others, is likely to be the quietest. This design employs a regular type swivel screw except that
A indicates how cross pin through head of swivel screw keeps sling loop in place. B shows construction of a simple type of semi-quick detachable sling swivel.
the shank is larger than that usually used and is quite short, having only a few threads, and screws into a plate set in the stock. A few turns will remove it, and it should be as quiet as the solid-type swivel. All these designs can be examined and perhaps, using one of them as a basis, you can make an improved design of quick-detachable swivel.
You may sometimes wish to change a right-hand safety of the push-through type, located in the trigger-guard, to a left-hand one and as these are of simple construction and of two general types, a study of the thumb piece will show it is easily accomplished.
One type of the push-through safet}' is a simple straight bar with a flat cut in it at one point so that when this is opposite a projection on the trigger, or beneath the sear point as is often seen when the safety is in the front of the guard, the trigger may be pulled.
When the thumb piece is pushed through so as to move this flat to one side the full diameter of the bar is beneath the trigger projection or sear point and the trigger cannot be pulled. In this type, it is only necessary to fill in this flat portion, either by welding or by sweating and pinning in a piece of steel and finishing it to the diameter of the round bar, after which a flat n a
A indicates how a right-hand, push-through, trigger guard, shotgun safety is changed over to left-hand operation by filling the notch and cutting another to the left of the original. B shows how a right-hand, push-through safety in the rear of the trigger guard is replaced with a new type for left-hand operation. The double notch is for the poppet and the single slot for the extension on the back of the trigger.
is cut at the opposite side, so that when the safety is pushed in from the left this flat comes beneath the trigger projection or sear point and allows the trigger to be pulled.
The second type of push-through safety, which is found only in the rear of the guard, has a groove cut around it into which the trigger projection enters when the trigger is pulled with the safety in the "off" position. To change this type to left-hand it is usually easier to make a new safety. This should be made from drill-rod, hardened and drawn or tempered at dark straw color. The groove location can he determined by putting a little prussian-blue upon the rear edge of the trigger projection and with the bar stock, after being cut to length, shoved in flush with the left side, the trigger is pulled so that an imprint is made upon the piece with the blue or this distance may be measured if the gun is disassembled.
The manufacturer of metal pistol-grip caps is either a machine job with heavy blanking presses or is entirely a hand job of cutting, filing and grinding, for the lathe will not produce the elliptical shape needed for the cap nor will the milling machine, except the profile miller which is not found in the ordinary shop.
The cap of steel may be rough sawed, ground, filed to shape and polished from steel of or more in thickness. If a raised center section is desired, the steel should be %G" to Vi" thick. The edge may be rough-ground on a shop grinder for a distance of to 14" from the edge to a thinner section and then finished off smoothly around the edge of this raised portion with high-speed hand electric grinder with mounted grinding points or with round files.
The raised center portion may be left with a plain smooth border or more in width, and a plain smooth section around the grip-cap screw in the center, and the balance of the raised portion of the cap may be decorated by engraving or etching with acid some design upon it, or it may be decorated by matting it with a punch with simply a point upon it or a matting punch with a design upon it may be used. These punches can be obtained from William Dixon Inc., of Newark, New Jersey, for about 30? each. Instead of a plain border around this raised center portion, a matting tool of a bead design may be used to decorate the border. Good effects in matting may be had by using dental burrs of different shapes, just as you would use a punch, by placing them upon the work and striking them with a hammer.
Pistol-grip caps of malleable-iron or bronze can be cast for you at any iron foundry and these can be cast to shape from a wood pattern that you make up. They may even be cast with a design upon them. They are buffed to a polish with stiff-wire buffing wheels. If a decorative design is used, do not have details too small or they will not come out well in the casting.
Cross grooving the tail of a rarnp sight with a pointed tool in the lathe. Showing how a ramp is mounted between the sides of the lathe chuck jaws and a sharp-pointed tool in the tool post is used to cross rib the ramp tail. The power cross feed is used and the lathe is so geared that the serrations arc .015" apart. A depth of .006" to .007" will be found about right for these serrations.
Pistol-grip caps of ivory or of bakelite or other plastics are easily sawed with a hack-saw and cut to shape and decorated with small cutters in a high-speed hand electric grinder. They may also be decorated or carved with engraving or dental chisels and die-sinkers or silversmiths' riffle files. They may be polished with a buffer and any of the polishing compounds, even valve grinding paste, followed by opticians' polishing rouge. Small felt polishing points may be used in the high-speed hand electric grinders for polishing small designs.
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There are a lot of things that either needs to be repaired, or put together when youre a homeowner. If youre a new homeowner, and have just gotten out of apartment style living, you might want to take this list with you to the hardware store. From remolding jobs to putting together furniture you can use these 5 power tools to get your stuff together. Dont forget too that youll need a few extra tools for other jobs around the house.